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Table of Contents

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-Q

(Mark one)

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2020

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                      to                      

Commission File Number 001-36177

GlycoMimetics, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware

06-1686563

(State or Other Jurisdiction of

Incorporation or Organization)

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

9708 Medical Center Drive

Rockville, Maryland

20850

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

(240243-1201

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

N/A

(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

Trading symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, $0.001 par value

GLYC

The Nasdaq Stock Market

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large Accelerated Filer            Accelerated Filer Smaller Reporting Company

Non-accelerated Filer        Emerging Growth Company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934).    Yes      No  

The number of outstanding shares of the registrant’s common stock, par value $0.001 per share, as of the close of business on July 30, 2020 was 47,724,731.

GLYCOMIMETICS, INC.

INDEX TO FORM 10-Q

PAGE

PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1. Financial Statements

3

Balance Sheets as of June 30, 2020 (unaudited) and December 31, 2019

3

Unaudited Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019

4

Unaudited Statements of Stockholders’ Equity for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019

5

Unaudited Statements of Cash Flows for the six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019

6

Notes to Unaudited Financial Statements

7

Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

19

Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

30

Item 4. Controls and Procedures

30

PART II. OTHER INFORMATION

Item 1. Legal Proceedings

31

Item 1A. Risk Factors

31

Item 2. Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds

34

Item 6. Exhibits

35

Signatures

36

Table of Contents

Part I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

ITEM 1. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

GLYCOMIMETICS, INC.

Balance Sheets

June 30, 

December 31, 

 

2020

2019

 

Assets

    

(Unaudited)

    

Current assets:

Cash and cash equivalents

$

149,844,590

$

158,201,441

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

3,513,405

 

4,326,322

Total current assets

 

153,357,995

 

162,527,763

Property and equipment, net

 

708,159

 

822,920

Prepaid research and development expenses

 

1,560,607

 

1,560,607

Deposits

52,320

52,320

Operating lease right-of-use asset

2,673,656

3,006,069

Total assets

$

158,352,737

$

167,969,679

Liabilities & stockholders’ equity

Current liabilities:

Accounts payable

$

1,371,308

$

1,435,660

Accrued expenses

 

7,479,793

 

8,710,790

Operating lease liabilities

 

850,188

 

804,126

Total current liabilities

 

9,701,289

 

10,950,576

Noncurrent accrued expenses

515,144

Noncurrent operating lease liabilities

2,383,808

2,818,516

Total liabilities

 

12,600,241

 

13,769,092

Stockholders’ equity:

Preferred stock; $0.001 par value; 5,000,000 shares authorized, no shares issued and outstanding at June 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019

 

 

Common stock; $0.001 par value; 100,000,000 shares authorized; 46,714,698 shares issued and outstanding at June 30, 2020; 43,466,933 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2019

 

46,713

 

43,465

Additional paid-in capital

 

425,890,066

 

412,599,772

Accumulated deficit

 

(280,184,283)

 

(258,442,650)

Total stockholders’ equity

 

145,752,496

 

154,200,587

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity

$

158,352,737

$

167,969,679

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the unaudited financial statements.

3

Table of Contents

 

GLYCOMIMETICS, INC.

Unaudited Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss

Three Months Ended June 30, 

Six Months Ended June 30, 

2020

2019

2020

2019

Revenue

    

$

    

$

    

$

9,000,000

    

$

    

Costs and expenses:

Research and development expense

 

9,870,813

 

13,065,359

 

22,539,073

 

24,838,025

General and administrative expense

 

4,234,917

 

3,750,610

 

8,674,677

 

7,111,058

Total costs and expenses

 

14,105,730

 

16,815,969

 

31,213,750

 

31,949,083

Loss from operations

 

(14,105,730)

 

(16,815,969)

 

(22,213,750)

 

(31,949,083)

Interest income

 

26,701

 

986,154

 

472,117

 

2,035,371

Net loss and comprehensive loss

$

(14,079,029)

$

(15,829,815)

$

(21,741,633)

$

(29,913,712)

Basic and diluted net loss per common share

$

(0.32)

$

(0.37)

$

(0.50)

$

(0.69)

Basic and diluted weighted-average number of common shares

 

43,801,251

 

43,183,010

 

43,688,420

 

43,174,989

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the unaudited financial statements.

4

Table of Contents

GLYCOMIMETICS, INC.

Unaudited Statements of Stockholders’ Equity

Six Months Ended June 30, 2020

Additional

Total

Common Stock

Paid-In

Accumulated

Stockholders’

   

Shares  

   

Amount  

   

Capital

   

Deficit

   

Equity

Balance at December 31, 2019

 

43,466,933

$

43,465

$

412,599,772

$

(258,442,650)

$

154,200,587

Issuance of common stock, net of issuance costs

3,126,709

3,127

9,571,010

9,574,137

Exercise of options

 

121,056

 

121

 

135,462

 

 

135,583

Stock-based compensation

 

 

 

3,583,822

 

 

3,583,822

Net loss

 

 

 

 

(21,741,633)

 

(21,741,633)

Balance at June 30, 2020

 

46,714,698

$

46,713

$

425,890,066

$

(280,184,283)

$

145,752,496

Six Months Ended June 30, 2019

Additional

Total

Common Stock

Paid-In

Accumulated

Stockholders’

Shares  

  

Amount  

  

Capital

  

Deficit

  

Equity

Balance at December 31, 2018

   

43,160,751

$

43,159

$

405,972,075

$

(200,550,739)

$

205,464,495

Exercise of options

 

32,439

 

33

 

106,288

 

 

106,321

Stock-based compensation

 

 

 

2,901,839

 

 

2,901,839

Net loss

 

 

 

 

(29,913,712)

 

(29,913,712)

Balance at June 30, 2019

 

43,193,190

$

43,192

$

408,980,202

$

(230,464,451)

$

178,558,943

Three Months Ended June 30, 2020

Additional

Total

Common Stock

Paid-In

Accumulated

Stockholders’

   

Shares  

   

Amount  

   

Capital

   

Deficit

   

Equity

Balance at March 31, 2020

 

43,582,979

$

43,581

$

414,551,776

$

(266,105,254)

$

148,490,103

Issuance of common stock, net of issuance costs

3,126,709

3,127

9,571,010

9,574,137

Exercise of options

 

5,010

 

5

 

5,607

 

 

5,612

Stock-based compensation

 

 

 

1,761,673

 

 

1,761,673

Net loss

 

 

 

 

(14,079,029)

 

(14,079,029)

Balance at June 30, 2020

 

46,714,698

$

46,713

$

425,890,066

$

(280,184,283)

$

145,752,496

Three Months Ended June 30, 2019

Additional

Total

Common Stock

Paid-In

Accumulated

Stockholders’

Shares  

  

Amount  

  

Capital

  

Deficit

  

Equity

Balance at March 31, 2019

   

43,180,169

$

43,179

$

407,385,052

$

(214,634,636)

$

192,793,595

Exercise of options

 

13,021

 

13

 

75,755

 

 

75,768

Stock-based compensation

 

 

 

1,519,395

 

 

1,519,395

Net loss

 

 

 

 

(15,829,815)

 

(15,829,815)

Balance at June 30, 2019

 

43,193,190

$

43,192

$

408,980,202

$

(230,464,451)

$

178,558,943

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the unaudited financial statements.

5

Table of Contents

GLYCOMIMETICS, INC.

Unaudited Statements of Cash Flows

Six Months Ended June 30, 

    

2020

    

2019

Operating activities

Net loss

$

(21,741,633)

$

(29,913,712)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:

Depreciation

 

135,872

 

141,631

Non-cash lease expense

332,413

302,843

Stock-based compensation expense

 

3,583,822

 

2,901,839

Changes in assets and liabilities:

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

812,917

 

(34,547)

Accounts payable

 

(70,944)

 

363,167

Accrued expenses

 

(1,230,997)

 

844,026

Noncurrent accrued expenses

515,144

Operating lease liabilities

(388,646)

(347,744)

Net cash used in operating activities

 

(18,052,052)

 

(25,742,497)

Investing activities

Purchases of property and equipment

 

(14,519)

 

(114,305)

Net cash used in investing activities

 

(14,519)

 

(114,305)

Financing activities

Proceeds from issuance of common stock, net of issuance costs

 

9,574,137

 

Proceeds from exercise of stock options

 

135,583

 

106,321

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

9,709,720

 

106,321

Net change in cash and cash equivalents

 

(8,356,851)

 

(25,750,481)

Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of period

 

158,201,441

 

209,917,595

Cash and cash equivalents, end of period

$

149,844,590

$

184,167,114

Non-cash investing and financing activities

Property acquisition costs included in accounts payable

$

6,592

$

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the unaudited financial statements.

6

Table of Contents

GLYCOMIMETICS, INC.

Notes to Unaudited Financial Statements

1. Description of the Business

GlycoMimetics, Inc. (the Company), a Delaware corporation headquartered in Rockville, Maryland, was incorporated in April 2003. The Company is a clinical-stage biotechnology company focused on the discovery and development of novel glycomimetic drugs to address unmet medical needs resulting from diseases in which carbohydrate biology plays a key role. Glycomimetics are molecules that mimic the structure of carbohydrates involved in important biological processes. Using its expertise in carbohydrate chemistry and knowledge of carbohydrate biology, the Company is developing a pipeline of proprietary glycomimetics that inhibit disease-related functions of carbohydrates, such as the roles they play in inflammation, cancer and infection.

The Company’s executive personnel have devoted substantially all of their time to date to the planning and organization of the Company, the process of hiring scientists and other personnel, initiating and overseeing research and development programs, including planned and ongoing clinical trials, and securing adequate capital for anticipated growth and operations. The Company has not commercialized any of its drug candidates or commenced commercial operations. The Company is subject to a number of risks similar to those of other companies in similar development stages, including dependence on key individuals, the need to develop commercially viable drugs, the need to successfully compete with other companies, many of whom are larger and better capitalized, and the need to obtain adequate additional financing to fund the development of its drug candidates. The Company has incurred significant operating losses since inception and has relied on its ability to fund its operations through private and public equity financings, and management expects operating losses and negative operating cash flows to continue for the foreseeable future. As the Company continues to incur losses, profitability will be dependent upon the successful development, approval and commercialization of its drug candidates and achieving a level of revenues adequate to support the Company’s cost structure. The Company may never achieve profitability, and unless and until it does, the Company will continue to need to raise additional capital. The Company believes that its currently available funds will be sufficient to fund the Company’s operations through at least 12 months from the date of the filing of this Quarterly Report. Management intends to fund future operations through additional public or private equity or debt offerings and may seek additional capital through arrangements with strategic partners or from other sources.

2. Significant Accounting Policies

Basis of Accounting

The accompanying financial statements were prepared based on the accrual method of accounting in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP).

Unaudited Financial Statements

The accompanying balance sheet as of June 30, 2020, statements of operations and comprehensive loss and stockholders’ equity for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019 and statements of cash flows for the six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019 are unaudited. These unaudited financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the rules and regulations of the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (the SEC) for interim financial information. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by GAAP for complete annual financial statements. These financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements and the accompanying notes for the year ended December 31, 2019 contained in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on February 28, 2020. The unaudited interim financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the annual financial statements and in the opinion of management reflect all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring adjustments) necessary to state fairly the Company’s financial position as of June 30, 2020 and its results of operations and changes in its stockholders’ equity for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019 and its cash flows for the six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019. The December 31, 2019 balance sheet included herein was derived from audited financial statements, but does not include all disclosures including notes required by GAAP for complete annual financial statements. The financial data and other information

7

Table of Contents

disclosed in these notes to the financial statements related to the three and six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019 are unaudited. Interim results are not necessarily indicative of results for an entire year or for any future period.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. Although actual results could differ from those estimates, management does not believe that such differences would be material.

Fair Value Measurements

The Company had no assets or liabilities that were measured using quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities or significant unobservable inputs (Level 2 and Level 3 assets and liabilities, respectively) as of June 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019. The carrying value of cash held in money market funds of $147.8 million and $156.2 million as of June 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively, is included in cash and cash equivalents and approximates market values based on quoted market prices (Level 1 inputs).

Concentration of Credit Risk

Credit risk represents the risk that the Company would incur a loss if counterparties failed to perform pursuant to the terms of their agreements. Financial instruments that potentially expose the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents consist of money market funds with major financial institutions in the United States. These funds may be redeemed upon demand and, therefore, bear minimal risk. The Company does not anticipate any losses on such balances.

Revenue Recognition

The Company applies Accounting Standards Codification, or ASC, Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), to all contracts with customers, except for contracts that are within the scope of other standards, such as leases, insurance, collaboration arrangements and financial instruments. Under Topic 606, an entity recognizes revenue when its customer obtains control of promised goods or services in an amount that reflects the consideration which the entity expects to receive in exchange for those goods and services. To determine revenue recognition for arrangements that an entity determines are within the scope of Topic 606, the entity performs the following five steps: (i) identify the contract(s) with the customer(s); (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance obligation. The Company only applies the five-step model to contracts when it is probable that the entity will collect the consideration it is entitled to in exchange for the goods and services it transfers to the customer. At contract inception, the Company assesses the goods or services promised within each contract that falls under the scope of Topic 606, determines those that are performance obligations and assesses whether each promised good or service is distinct. The Company then recognizes as revenue the amount of the transaction price that is allocated to the respective performance obligation when (or as) the performance obligation is satisfied.

The Company enters into licensing agreements which are within the scope of Topic 606, under which it licenses certain of its drug candidates’ rights to third parties. The terms of these arrangements typically include payment of one or more of the following: non-refundable, up-front license fees; development, regulatory and commercial milestone payments; and royalties on net sales of the licensed product, if and when earned. See Note 9 for additional information regarding a license agreement entered into during the six months ended June 30, 2020.

In determining the appropriate amount of revenue to be recognized as it fulfills its obligation under each of its agreements, the Company performs the five steps under Topic 606 described above. As part of the accounting for these arrangements, the Company must develop assumptions that require judgment to determine the stand-alone selling price, which may include forecasted revenues, development timelines, reimbursement of personnel costs, discount rates and probabilities of technical and regulatory success.

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Licensing of Intellectual Property: If the license to the Company’s intellectual property is determined to be distinct from the other performance obligations identified in the arrangement, the Company recognizes revenue from non-refundable, up-front fees allocated to the license when the license is transferred to the licensee and the licensee is able to use and benefit from the license. For licenses that are bundled with other promises, the Company utilizes judgment to assess the nature of the combined performance obligation to determine whether the combined performance obligation is satisfied over time or at a point in time and, if over time, the appropriate method of measuring progress for purposes of recognizing revenue from non-refundable, up-front fees. The Company evaluates the measure of progress each reporting period, and, if necessary, adjusts the measure of performance and related revenue recognition.

Milestone Payments: At the inception of each arrangement that includes development milestone payments, the Company evaluates whether the milestones are considered probable of being reached and estimates the amount to be included in the transaction price using the most likely amount method. If it is probable that a significant revenue reversal will not occur, the associated milestone value is included in the transaction price. Milestone payments that are not within the control of the Company or the licensee, such as regulatory approvals, are not considered probable of being achieved until those approvals are received. The transaction price is then allocated to each performance obligation on a relative stand-alone selling price basis, for which the Company recognizes revenue as or when the performance obligations under the contract are satisfied. At the end of each subsequent reporting period, the Company re-evaluates the probability of achievement of such development milestones and any related constraint and, if necessary, adjusts its estimate of the overall transaction price. Any such adjustments are recorded on a cumulative catch-up basis, which would affect license, collaboration and other revenues and earnings in their period of adjustment.

Royalties: For arrangements that include sales-based royalties, including milestone payments based on the level of sales, and for which the license is deemed to be the predominant item to which royalties relate, the Company recognizes revenue at the later of (i) when the related sales occur or (ii) when the performance obligation to which some or all of the royalty has been allocated has been satisfied (or partially satisfied). To date, the Company has not recognized any royalty revenue from its license agreements.

Manufacturing and Supply: The promises under the Company’s agreements may include clinical and commercial manufacturing products to be provided by the Company to the counterparty. The services are generally determined to be distinct from the other promises or performance obligations identified in the arrangement. The Company recognizes the transaction price allocated to these services as revenue at a point in time when transfer of control of the related products to the customer occurs.

Research and Development Costs (Including Accruals for Clinical Trial Expenses)

Except for payments made in advance of services, research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Research and development costs primarily consist of employee-related expenses, including salaries and benefits, expenses incurred under agreements with contract research organizations (CROs), investigative sites and consultants that conduct the Company's clinical trials, the cost of acquiring and manufacturing clinical trial materials, including costs incurred under agreements with contract manufacturing organizations (CMOs), and other allocated expenses, stock-based compensation expense, and costs associated with non-clinical activities and regulatory approvals.

Clinical trial expenses are a significant component of research and development expenses, and the Company outsources a significant portion of these clinical trial activities to third parties. Third-party clinical trial expenses include investigator fees, site and patient costs, CRO costs, and costs for central laboratory testing and data management. The accrual for site and patient costs includes inputs such as estimates of patient enrollment, patient cycles incurred, clinical site activations, and other pass-through costs. These inputs are required to be estimated due to a lag in receiving the actual clinical information from third parties. Payments for these activities are based on the terms of the individual arrangements, which may differ from the pattern of costs incurred, and are reflected on the balance sheets as a prepaid asset or accrued expenses. These third-party agreements are generally cancellable, and related costs are recorded as research and development expenses as incurred. Non-refundable advance clinical payments for goods or services that will be used or rendered for future research and development activities are recorded as a prepaid asset and recognized as expense as the related goods are delivered or the related services are performed. When evaluating the adequacy of the accrued expenses, management assessments include: (i) an evaluation by the project manager of the work that has been completed during the period; (ii) measurement of progress prepared internally and/or provided by the third-party service

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provider; (iii) analyses of data that justify the progress; and (iv) the Company’s judgment. Significant judgments and estimates may be made in determining the accrued balances at the end of any reporting period. Actual results could differ from the estimates made. The Company’s historical clinical accrual estimates have not been materially different from the actual costs. Clinical trial accruals that are due longer than one year are classified as noncurrent accrued expenses.

Stock-Based Compensation

Stock-based payments are accounted for in accordance with the provisions of ASC 718, Compensation—Stock Compensation. The fair value of stock-based payments is estimated, on the date of grant, using the Black-Scholes-Merton model. The resulting fair value is recognized ratably over the requisite service period, which is generally the vesting period of the option. The Company accounts for forfeitures as they occur and does not make an estimate of expected forfeitures at the time of grant.

The Company has elected to use the Black-Scholes-Merton option pricing model to value any options granted. The Company will reconsider use of the Black-Scholes-Merton model if additional information becomes available in the future that indicates another model would be more appropriate or if grants issued in future periods have characteristics that prevent their value from being reasonably estimated using this model.

A discussion of management’s methodology for developing some of the assumptions used in the valuation model follows:

Expected Dividend Yield—The Company has never declared or paid dividends and has no plans to do so in the foreseeable future.

Expected Volatility—Volatility is a measure of the amount by which a financial variable such as share price has fluctuated (historical volatility) or is expected to fluctuate (expected volatility) during a period. Effective January 1, 2020, the Company bases the expected volatility on the historical volatility of the Company’s publicly traded common stock. Prior to January 1, 2020, the Company utilized the historical volatilities of a peer group (e.g., several public entities of similar size, complexity, and stage of development), along with the Company’s historical volatility since its initial public offering, to determine its expected volatility.

Risk-Free Interest Rate—This is the U.S. Treasury rate for the week of each option grant during the year, having a term that most closely resembles the expected life of the option.

Expected Term—This is a period of time that the options granted are expected to remain unexercised. Options granted have a maximum term of 10 years. The Company estimates the expected life of the option term to be 6.25 years. The Company uses a simplified method to calculate the average expected term.

Net Loss Per Common Share

Basic net loss per common share is determined by dividing net loss by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period, without consideration of common stock equivalents. Diluted net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted-average number of common stock equivalents outstanding for the period. The treasury stock method is used to determine the dilutive effect of the Company’s stock options and restricted stock units.

The following potentially dilutive securities outstanding have been excluded from the computation of diluted weighted-average common shares outstanding, as they would be anti-dilutive:

Three and Six Months Ended June 30,

    

2020

    

2019

    

Stock options and restricted stock units

 

6,429,701

 

5,073,149

 

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Comprehensive Loss

Comprehensive loss comprises net loss and other changes in equity that are excluded from net loss. For the three and six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019, the Company’s net loss equaled comprehensive net loss and, accordingly, no additional disclosure is presented.

Recently Issued Accounting Standards

Adopted Accounting Standards

In November 2018, the Financial Accounting Standard Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2018-18, Collaborative Arrangements (Topic 808): Clarifying the Interaction between Topic 808 and Topic 606. The Company adopted this update as of January 1, 2020. The amendment clarifies that certain transactions between collaborative arrangement participants should be accounted for as revenue under Topic 606 when the collaborative arrangement participant is a customer in the context of a unit of account. In those situations, all the guidance in Topic 606 should be applied, including recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure requirements. The amendment also adds unit-of-account guidance in Topic 808 to align with the guidance in Topic 606 (that is, a distinct good or service) when an entity is assessing whether the collaborative arrangement or a part of the arrangement is within the scope of Topic 606. Lastly, the amendment requires that in a transaction with a collaborative arrangement participant that is not directly related to sales to third parties, presenting the transaction together with revenue recognized under Topic 606 is precluded if the collaborative arrangement participant is not a customer. The adoption of the standard had no effect on the Company’s operating results, cash flows or financial position.

Accounting Standards Not Yet Adopted

With the exception of the new standard discussed above, there have been no new accounting pronouncements that have significance, or potential significance, to the Company’s financial statements.

3. Prepaid Expenses and Other Current Assets

The following is a summary of the Company’s prepaid expenses and other current assets:

June 30, 

December 31, 

    

2020

    

2019

 

Prepaid research and development expenses

$

3,105,222

$

3,838,835

Other prepaid expenses

358,821

301,534

Other receivables

 

49,362

 

185,953

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

$

3,513,405

$

4,326,322

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4. Property and Equipment

Property and equipment, net consists of the following:

June 30, 

December 31, 

    

2020

    

2019

 

Furniture and fixtures

$

345,712

$

345,712

Laboratory equipment

 

1,417,952

 

1,409,526

Office equipment

 

16,755

 

11,085

Computer equipment

 

309,024

 

302,009

Leasehold improvements

616,133

616,133

Property and equipment

 

2,705,576

 

2,684,465

Less accumulated depreciation

 

(1,997,417)

 

(1,861,545)

Property and equipment, net

$

708,159

$

822,920

Depreciation expense was $67,681 and $71,191 for the three months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively, and $135,872 and $141,631 for the six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

5. Accrued Expenses

The following is a summary of the Company’s accrued expenses:

    

June 30, 

December 31, 

 

2020

2019

 

Accrued research and development expenses

$

4,241,613

$

5,149,697

Accrued bonuses

2,035,080

2,677,288

Accrued consulting and other professional fees

 

354,465

 

320,935

Accrued employee benefits

 

694,718

 

351,966

Other accrued expenses

 

153,917

 

210,904

Accrued expenses

$

7,479,793

$

8,710,790

6. Leases

At the inception of an arrangement, the Company determines whether the arrangement is or contains a lease based on the circumstances present. The Company determines a lease exists if the contract conveys the right to control an identified asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration. Control is considered to exist when the lessee has the right to obtain substantially all of the economic benefits from the use of an identified asset as well as direct the right to use of that asset. Leases with a term greater than one year are recognized on the balance sheet as right-of-use assets, lease liabilities and, if applicable, long-term lease liabilities. The Company has elected not to recognize on the balance sheet leases with terms of one year or less on the lease commencement date. If a contract is considered to be a lease, the Company recognizes a lease liability based on the present value of the future lease payments over the expected lease term, with an offsetting entry to recognize a right-of-use asset.

The interest rate implicit in lease contracts is typically not readily determinable. As such, the Company utilizes the appropriate incremental borrowing rate, which is the rate incurred to borrow on a collateralized basis over a term similar to the term of the lease for which the rate is estimated. Certain adjustments to the right-of-use asset may be required for items such as initial direct costs paid or incentives received.

The Company leases office and research space in Rockville, Maryland under an operating lease with a term from June 15, 2015 through October 31, 2023 (the Lease) that is subject to annual rent increases. The Company has the right to sublease or assign all or a portion of the premises, subject to the conditions set forth in the Lease. The Lease may be terminated early by either the landlord or the Company in certain circumstances. In connection with the Lease, the Company received rent abatement as a lease incentive in the initial year of the Lease.

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In March 2016, the Company amended the Lease (the Lease Amendment) to lease additional space as of June 1, 2016. In May 2016, the Company also paid a security deposit of $52,320 to be held until the expiration or termination of the Company’s obligations under the Lease. The term of the Lease Amendment for the additional space continues through October 31, 2023, the same date as for the premises originally leased under the Lease, subject to the Company’s renewal option set forth in the Lease. The Company’s one-time option to terminate the Lease effective as of October 31, 2020 also applies to the additional space.

The Company identified and applied the following significant assumptions in recognizing the right-of-use asset and corresponding liability for the Lease and Lease Amendment:

Lease term – The lease term includes both the noncancelable period and, when applicable, cancelable option periods where failure to exercise such option would result in an economic penalty. The Company’s renewal option to extend is not reasonably certain of being exercised as of June 30, 2020.

Incremental borrowing rate – As the Company’s lease does not provide an implicit rate, the Company used an incremental borrowing rate, or IBR, which is the rate incurred to borrow on a collateralized basis over a term similar to the term of the lease for which the rate is estimated. The Company determined the IBR to be 8.0% based on an estimated rate that considered the Company’s credit risk in the United States for a collateralized borrowing and term similar to the Lease.

As of June 30, 2020, the weighted-average remaining lease term was 3.3 years. There were no additional operating leases entered into during the six months ended June 30, 2020.

The components of lease expense and related cash flows were as follows:

Three Months Ended June 30, 

Six Months Ended June 30, 

   

2020

   

2019

   

2020

   

2019

Operating lease cost

$

231,989

$

232,036

$

463,979

$

464,026

Variable lease cost

144,009

84,723

305,955

176,481

Total operating lease cost

$

375,998

$

316,759

$

769,934

$

640,507

Cash paid for amounts included in the measurement of lease liabilities:

Operating cash flows from operating leases

$

260,489

$

255,493

$

520,211

$

508,880

Maturities of lease liability due under these lease agreements as of June 30, 2020 were as follows:

Operating Lease

    

Obligation

July 1, 2020 - December 31, 2020

$

530,979

2021

1,077,420

2022

1,104,356

2023

940,793

2024

Thereafter

Total

3,653,548

Present value adjustment

(419,552)

Present value of lease payments

$

3,233,996

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7. Stockholders’ Equity

At-The-Market Sales Facility

On September 28, 2017, the Company entered into an at-the-market sales agreement (the September 2017 Sales Agreement) with Cowen and Company, LLC to sell up to $100.0 million of the Company’s common stock registered under a shelf registration statement filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission in September 2017. During the quarter ended June 30, 2020, the Company issued and sold 3,126,709 shares of common stock under the at-the-market sales agreement. The shares were sold at a weighted average price per share of $3.16, for aggregate net proceeds of $9.6 million, after deducting commissions and offering expenses. There were no shares sold under the September 2017 Sales Agreement during the six months ended June 30, 2019. As of June 30, 2020, $70.1 million remained available to be sold under the terms of the September 2017 Sales Agreement. The shelf registration statement under which the shares to be sold under the September 2017 Sales Agreement are registered expires on October 6, 2020.

Subsequent to June 30, 2020, the Company has issued and sold an additional 1,010,033 shares of common stock under the September 2017 Sales Agreement at a weighted average price per share of $4.65, for aggregate net proceeds of $4.6 million, after deducting commissions and offering expenses.

2003 Stock Incentive Plan

The 2003 Stock Incentive Plan (the 2003 Plan) provided for the grant of incentives and nonqualified stock options and restricted stock awards. The exercise price for incentive stock options must be at least equal to the fair value of the common stock on the grant date. Unless otherwise stated in a stock option agreement, 25% of the shares subject to an option grant will vest upon the first anniversary of the vesting start date and thereafter at the rate of one forty-eighth of the option shares per month as of the first day of each month after the first anniversary. Upon termination of employment by reasons other than death, cause, or disability, any vested options shall terminate 60 days after the termination date. Stock options terminate 10 years from the date of grant. The 2003 Plan expired on May 21, 2013.

A summary of the Company’s stock option activity under the 2003 Plan for the six months ended June 30, 2020 is as follows:

 

WEIGHTED-

AGGREGATE

 

WEIGHTED-

AVERAGE

INTRINSIC

 

AVERAGE

REMAINING

VALUE

 

OUTSTANDING

EXERCISE

CONTRACTUAL

(IN

OPTIONS

    

PRICE

    

TERM (YEARS) 

    

THOUSANDS)

Outstanding as of December 31, 2019

382,337

$

1.33

 

1.3

Options exercised

(121,056)

 

1.12

Options forfeited

 

Outstanding, Vested and Exercisable as of June 30, 2020

261,281

 

1.43

 

1.0

$

608

As of June 30, 2020, outstanding options under the 2003 Plan were fully expensed and all shares underlying outstanding options were fully vested. Total intrinsic value of the options exercised during the six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019 was $468,458 and $129,250, respectively, and total cash received for options exercised was $135,583 and $12,320 during the six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

2013 Equity Incentive Plan

The Company’s board of directors adopted, and its stockholders approved, its 2013 Equity Incentive Plan (the 2013 Plan) effective on January 9, 2014. The 2013 Plan provides for the grant of incentive stock options within the meaning of Section 422 of the Internal Revenue Code to the Company’s employees and its parent and subsidiary corporations’ employees, and for the grant of nonstatutory stock options, restricted stock awards, restricted stock unit awards, stock appreciation rights, performance stock awards and other forms of stock compensation to its employees, including officers, consultants and directors. The 2013 Plan also provides for the grant of performance cash awards to the Company’s employees, consultants and directors. Unless otherwise stated in a stock option agreement, 25% of the shares

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subject to an option grant will typically vest upon the first anniversary of the vesting start date, with the balance of the shares vesting in a series of thirty-six successive equal monthly installments as of the first day of each month measured from the first anniversary of the vesting start date. Upon termination of employment by reasons other than death, cause, or disability, any vested options will terminate 90 days after the termination date, unless otherwise set forth in a stock option agreement. Stock options generally terminate 10 years from the date of grant.

Authorized Shares

The maximum number of shares of common stock that initially could be issued under the 2013 Plan was 1,000,000 shares, plus any shares subject to stock options or similar awards granted under the 2003 Plan that expire or terminate without having been exercised in full or are forfeited or repurchased by the Company. The number of shares of common stock reserved for issuance under the 2013 Plan automatically increases on January 1 of each year until January 1, 2023, by 3% of the total number of shares of common stock outstanding on December 31 of the preceding calendar year, or a lesser number of shares as may be determined by the Company’s board of directors. The maximum number of shares that may be issued pursuant to exercise of incentive stock options under the 2013 Plan is 20,000,000 shares. As of January 1, 2020, the number of shares of common stock that may be issued under the 2013 Plan was automatically increased by 1,304,007 shares, representing 3% of the total number of shares of common stock outstanding on December 31, 2019, increasing the number of shares of common stock available for issuance under the 2013 Plan to 6,466,823 shares.

Shares issued under the 2013 Plan may be authorized but unissued or reacquired shares of common stock. Shares subject to stock awards granted under the 2013 Plan that expire or terminate without being exercised in full, or that are paid out in cash rather than in shares, will not reduce the number of shares available for issuance under the 2013 Plan. Additionally, shares issued pursuant to stock awards under the 2013 Plan that the Company repurchases or that are forfeited, as well as shares reacquired by the Company as consideration for the exercise or purchase price of a stock award or to satisfy tax withholding obligations related to a stock award, will become available for future grant under the 2013 Plan.

A summary of the Company’s stock option activity under the 2013 Plan for the six months ended June 30, 2020 is as follows:

WEIGHTED-

AGGREGATE

 

WEIGHTED-

AVERAGE

INTRINSIC

 

AVERAGE

REMAINING

VALUE

 

OUTSTANDING

EXERCISE

CONTRACTUAL

(IN

 

OPTIONS

    

PRICE

    

TERM (YEARS) 

    

THOUSANDS)

Outstanding as of December 31, 2019

4,399,606

$

10.43

6.8

Options granted

1,473,100

4.49

Options exercised

Options forfeited

(57,054)

9.33

Outstanding as of June 30, 2020

5,815,652

8.93

7.1

$

101

Vested or expected to vest as of June 30, 2020

5,815,652

8.93

7.1

$

101

Exercisable as of June 30, 2020

3,318,444

9.69

5.7

$

As of June 30, 2020, there was $12,644,390 of total unrecognized compensation expense related to unvested options under the 2013 Plan that will be recognized over a weighted-average period of approximately 2.5 years. There were no options exercised under the 2013 Plan during the six months ended June 30, 2020. Total intrinsic value of the options exercised during the six months ended June 30, 2019 was $97,429 and total cash received for options exercised was $94,001 during the six months ended June 30, 2019. The total fair value of shares underlying options which vested in the six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019 was $5,014,602 and $4,395,888, respectively.

A restricted stock unit (RSU) is a stock award that entitles the holder to receive shares of the Company’s common stock as the award vests. The fair value of each RSU is based on the closing price of the Company’s common stock on the date of grant. As of June 30, 2020, there was $858,158 of total unrecognized compensation expense associated with outstanding RSU grants that will be recognized over a weighted-average period of approximately 1.2 years.

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The following is a summary of RSU activity under the 2013 Plan for the six months ended June 30, 2020:

 

 

 

Weighted-Average

 

Number of Shares

Grant Date

 

Underlying RSUs

    

Fair Value

 

Unvested at December 31, 2019

324,550

$

4.53

Granted

 

Forfeited

(12,382)

 

4.53

Vested

 

Unvested at June 30, 2020

312,168

 

4.53

Inducement Plan

In January 2020, the Company’s board of directors adopted the GlycoMimetics, Inc. Inducement Plan (the Inducement Plan). The Inducement Plan provides for the grant of nonstatutory stock options, restricted stock awards, restricted stock unit awards, stock appreciation rights and other forms of stock awards to individuals not previously an employee or director of the Company as an inducement for such individuals to join the Company. Unless otherwise stated in an applicable stock option agreement, one-fourth of the shares subject to an option grant under the Inducement Plan will typically vest upon the first anniversary of the vesting start date, with the balance of the shares vesting in a series of thirty-six successive equal monthly installments as of the first day of each month measured from the first anniversary of the vesting start date, subject to the new employee’s continued service with the Company through the applicable vesting dates. Upon termination of employment by reasons other than death, cause or disability, any vested options will terminate 90 days after the termination date, unless otherwise set forth in a stock option agreement. Stock options generally terminate 10 years from the date of grant. There were 500,000 shares of common stock reserved under the Inducement Plan at its adoption date.

A summary of the Company’s stock option activity under the Inducement Plan for the six months ended June 30, 2020 is as follows:

WEIGHTED-

AGGREGATE

 

WEIGHTED-

AVERAGE

INTRINSIC

 

AVERAGE

REMAINING

VALUE

 

OUTSTANDING

EXERCISE

CONTRACTUAL

(IN

 

OPTIONS

    

PRICE

    

TERM (YEARS) 

    

THOUSANDS)

Outstanding as of December 31, 2019

$

Options granted

40,600

2.06

Options exercised

Options forfeited

Outstanding as of June 30, 2020

40,600

2.06

9.8

$

69

Vested or expected to vest as of June 30, 2020

40,600

2.06

9.8

$

69

Exercisable as of June 30, 2020

$

As of June 30, 2020, there was $56,002 of total unrecognized compensation expense related to unvested options under the Inducement Plan that will be recognized over a weighted-average period of approximately 3.8 years. There were no options vested or exercised under the Inducement Plan during the six months ended June 30, 2020.

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The weighted-average fair value of the options granted during the six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019 was $3.19 per share and $7.20 per share, respectively, applying the Black-Scholes-Merton option pricing model utilizing the following weighted-average assumptions:

Six Months Ended June 30, 

    

2020

2019

Expected term

 

6.25 years

6.25 years

Expected volatility

 

84.39%

71.14%

Risk-free interest rate

 

1.45%

2.55%

Expected dividend yield

 

0%

0%

Stock-based compensation expense was classified on the statements of operations as follows for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019:

Three Months Ended June 30, 

Six Months Ended June 30, 

    

2020

2019

   

2020

2019

    

Research and development expense

$

747,006

$

578,843

$

1,483,037

$

1,086,665

General and administrative expense

 

1,014,667

 

940,552

 

2,100,785

 

1,815,174

Total stock-based compensation expense

$

1,761,673

$

1,519,395

$

3,583,822

$

2,901,839

8. Income Taxes

The Company has not recorded any tax provision or benefit for the six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019. The Company has provided a valuation allowance for the full amount of its net deferred tax assets since realization of any future benefit from deductible temporary differences, net operating loss carryforwards and research and development credits is not more-likely-than-not to be realized at June 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019.

9. License and Collaboration Agreements

In January 2020, the Company entered into a collaboration and license agreement (the Agreement) with Apollomics (Hong Kong), Limited (Apollomics) for the development, manufacture and commercialization of products derived from two of the Company’s compounds, GMI-1271 and GMI-1687 (the Products) for therapeutic and prophylactic uses (the Field) in China, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau (the Territory). Under the terms of the Agreement, the Company granted Apollomics:

an exclusive license, with the right to sublicense, to develop, manufacture and have manufactured, distribute, market, promote, sell, have sold, offer for sale, import, label, package and otherwise the Products in the Field in the Territory; and
a non-exclusive license to conduct preclinical research with respect to Products in the Field outside of the Territory for the purposes of developing such Products for use in the Territory.

Additionally, the Company and Apollomics entered into a manufacturing and supply agreement pursuant to which the Company will manufacture and supply the Products at agreed upon prices. Apollomics has the option to begin manufacture of the Products after appropriate material transfer requirements are met. There were no Products delivered to Apollomics during the six months ended June 30, 2020.

The Company evaluated the Agreement under the provisions of ASC 606 and identified two performance obligations under this revenue arrangement: the (i) delivery of functional licenses and (ii) manufacture and supply of the Products. The initial transaction price consists of a $9.0 million non-refundable up-front payment which was allocated to the delivered functional licenses and recognized in full as revenue in the first quarter of 2020 given that the performance obligation was satisfied upon inception. The Agreement contains various forms of variable consideration, including (i) up to $75.0 million in development milestones based on achievement of certain clinical and regulatory events, (ii) up to $105.0 million of sales-based commercial milestones based on achievement of certain annual net sales targets, (iii) sales-

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based royalties at specified percentages of net sales ranging from the high single digits to 15%, and (iv) manufacture and supply of clinical and commercial Products. The Company has fully constrained the development milestone consideration using the most likely amount method and will recognize that revenue when it is probable that recognition of revenue related to the milestone will not result in a significant reversal in amounts recognized in future periods, and as such have been excluded from the transaction price. The Company will recognize revenue related to the sales-based commercial and royalty milestones and royalties at the later of (i) when the related sales occur or (ii) when the performance obligation to which some or all of the royalty has been allocated has been satisfied (or partially satisfied), as they were determined to relate predominantly to the licenses granted to Apollomics and, therefore, have been excluded from the transaction price. Lastly, the Company has determined that the consideration for the manufacturing and supply is all variable and is fully constrained. Variable consideration allocated to manufacturing and supply will be recognized at a point in time when the Product is delivered and when the title to the Product is transferred to the customer pursuant to the agreement. The Company reassesses the transaction price in each reporting period and upon the occurrence of a change in circumstances or final resolution of any particular event.

10. Risks and Uncertainties

COVID-19

In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the novel coronavirus disease 2019, or COVID-19, outbreak a pandemic. In order to mitigate the spread of COVID-19, governments have imposed unprecedented restrictions on business operations, travel and gatherings, resulting in a global economic downturn and other adverse economic and societal impacts. The COVID-19 pandemic has also overwhelmed or otherwise led to changes in the operations of many healthcare facilities.

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Company’s business and financial performance is uncertain and depends on various factors, including the scope and duration of the pandemic, government restrictions and other actions, including relief measures, implemented to address the impact of the pandemic, and resulting impacts on the financial markets and overall economy. The imposition of “lockdown,” “social distancing” and “shelter in place” directives by state and federal governments in the United States as well as governments in other regions of the world in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, including in locations in which our Phase 3 clinical trial of uproleselan is being conducted, resulted in slowed clinical site initiation, patient recruitment and enrollment rates in April 2020. Enrollment rates more recently showed an encouraging upward trend. However, the COVID-19 infection rates continue to rise, especially in the United States, which could negatively effect enrollment going forward. The Company is unable to determine the extent of the impact of the pandemic on its operations and financial condition going forward. These developments are highly uncertain and unpredictable, and may materially adversely affect the Company’s financial position and results of operations. The Company continues to closely monitor the COVID-19 situation and any potential impact to our planned activities.

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ITEM 2.

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Certain statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q may constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. The words or phrases “would be,” “will allow,” “intends to,” “will likely result,” “are expected to,” “will continue,” “is anticipated,” “estimate,” “project,” or similar expressions, or the negative of such words or phrases, are intended to identify “forward-looking statements.” We have based these forward-looking statements on our current expectations and projections about future events. Because such statements include risks and uncertainties, actual results may differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to these differences include those below and elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, our Annual Report on Form 10-K, particularly in Part I – Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” and our other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Statements made herein are as of the date of the filing of this Form 10-Q with the Securities and Exchange Commission and should not be relied upon as of any subsequent date. Unless otherwise required by applicable law, we do not undertake, and we specifically disclaim, any obligation to update any forward-looking statements to reflect occurrences, developments, unanticipated events or circumstances after the date of such statement.

The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our unaudited financial statements and related notes that appear in Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and with our audited financial statements and related notes for the year ended December 31, 2019, which are included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 28, 2020.

Overview

We are a clinical-stage biotechnology company focused on the discovery and development of novel glycomimetic drugs to address unmet medical needs resulting from diseases in which carbohydrate biology plays a key role. We are developing a pipeline of glycomimetics, which are molecules that mimic the structure of carbohydrates involved in important biological processes, to inhibit disease-related functions of carbohydrates such as the roles they play in inflammation, cancer and infection. We believe this represents an innovative approach to drug discovery to treat a wide range of diseases. We are focusing our efforts on drug candidates for rare diseases that we believe will qualify for orphan drug designation.

Our proprietary glycomimetics platform is based on our expertise in carbohydrate chemistry and our understanding of the role carbohydrates play in key biological processes. Most human proteins are modified by the addition of complex carbohydrate structures to the surface of such proteins, which affects the functions of the proteins and their interactions with other molecules. Our initial research and development efforts have focused on drug candidates targeting selectins, which are proteins that serve as adhesion molecules and bind to carbohydrates that are involved in the inflammatory component and progression of a wide range of diseases, including hematologic disorders, cancer and cardiovascular disease. For example, we believe that members of the selectin family play a key role in tumor metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy. Inhibiting specific carbohydrates from binding to selectins has long been viewed as a potentially attractive approach for therapeutic intervention. The ability to successfully develop drug-like compounds that inhibit binding with selectins, known as selectin antagonists, has historically been limited by the complexities of carbohydrate chemistry. We believe our expertise in carbohydrate chemistry enables us to design selectin antagonists and other glycomimetics that may inhibit the disease-related functions of certain carbohydrates in order to develop novel drug candidates to address orphan diseases with high unmet medical need.

Our lead glycomimetic drug candidate, uproleselan, is a specific E-selectin inhibitor that we are developing to be used in combination with chemotherapy to treat patients with acute myeloid leukemia, or AML, a life-threatening hematologic cancer, and potentially other hematologic cancers. We completed an initial Phase 1 trial in healthy volunteers for uproleselan, and in May 2017 we completed enrollment in a Phase 1/2 clinical trial in patients with either relapsed/refractory or de novo/secondary AML. In December 2018, at the annual meeting of the American Society of Hematology, or ASH, we presented clinical data from this Phase 1/2 clinical trial that showed high remission rates, improved overall survival and improved event-free survival, all compared to historical controls derived from third-party clinical trials evaluating treatment with standard chemotherapy.

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In March 2018, we announced our design for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase 3 clinical trial to evaluate uproleselan in individuals with relapsed/refractory AML, which design is aligned with guidance received from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA. Based on consultations with the FDA, the single pivotal trial is planned to enroll approximately 380 adult patients with relapsed or refractory AML at centers in the United States, Canada, Europe and Australia. We dosed the first patient in this trial in November 2018. The primary efficacy endpoint will be overall survival; importantly, the FDA has advised us that data on overall survival will not need to be censored for transplant in the primary efficacy analysis, meaning that patients who proceed to transplant will continue to be included as part of the survival analysis. All patients will be treated with standard chemotherapy of either MEC (mitoxantrone, etoposide and cytarabine) or FAI (fludarabine, cytarabine and idarubicin), with approximately one-half of the patients randomized to receive uproleselan in addition to chemotherapy. Patients receiving uproleselan will be dosed for one day prior to initiation of chemotherapy, twice a day through the chemotherapy regimen, and then for two days after the end of chemotherapy, which was the same regimen as in the Phase 1/2 trial. The dose regimen will be fixed, rather than weight-based, which we believe will simplify administration. We plan to offer up to three cycles of consolidation therapy in both arms of the trial for patients who achieve remission. We believe that multiple cycles of treatment in patients who respond may drive an even deeper response in patients treated with uproleselan. If this is the case, it could lengthen the duration of remission with potential for additional benefit on survival. Key secondary endpoints of the Phase 3 trial will include the incidence of severe mucositis and remission rate, which will be assessed in a hierarchical fashion which may provide supportive data.

Uproleselan received orphan drug designation from the FDA in May 2015 for the treatment of patients with AML. In June 2016, uproleselan received fast track designation from the FDA for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory AML and elderly patients aged 60 years or older with AML. In May 2017, uproleselan received Breakthrough Therapy designation from the FDA for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory AML. In May 2017, the European Commission, based on a favorable recommendation from the EMA Committee for Orphan Medicinal Products, granted orphan designation for uproleselan for the treatment of patients with AML. In June 2018, we received a response from the EMA to our request for scientific advice with respect to our Marketing Authorization Application, or MAA, development plan. Based on this guidance, we are conducting the global Phase 3 clinical trial and intend to pursue regulatory approval of uproleselan for the treatment of AML.

In May 2018, we signed a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement, or CRADA, with the National Cancer Institute, or NCI, part of the National Institutes of Health. Under the terms of the CRADA, we will collaborate with both the NCI and the Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology to conduct a Phase 2/3 randomized, controlled clinical trial testing the addition of uproleselan to a standard cytarabine/daunorubicin chemotherapy regimen (7&3) in older adults with previously untreated AML who are suitable for intensive chemotherapy. The primary endpoint will be overall survival, which is defined as the time from the date of randomization to death from any cause, with a planned interim analysis based on event-free survival after the first 250 patients have been enrolled in the trial. The full trial is expected to enroll approximately 670 patients. Under the terms of the CRADA, the NCI may also fund additional research, including clinical trials involving pediatric patients with AML as well as preclinical experiments and clinical trials evaluating alternative populations and chemotherapy regimens. We will supply uproleselan as well as provide financial support to augment data analysis and monitoring for the Phase 3 program. The trial opened for enrollment in early 2019 and enrolled the first patient in April 2019.

As a potential life-cycle extension to uproleselan, we have rationally designed an innovative antagonist of E-selectin, GMI-1687, that could be suitable for subcutaneous administration. When given by subcutaneous injection in animal models, GMI-1687 has been observed to have equivalent activity to uproleselan, but at an approximately 1,000-fold lower dose. We believe that GMI-1687 could be developed to broaden the clinical usefulness of an E-selectin antagonist to conditions where outpatient treatment is preferred or required. We are currently conducting preclinical studies with GMI-1687 to support our planned submission of an investigational new drug application, or IND, to the FDA.

We are developing an additional drug candidate, GMI-1359, that simultaneously targets both E-selectin and a chemokine receptor known as CXCR4. Since E-selectin and CXCR4 are implicated in the retention of cancer cells in the bone and bone marrow, we believe that targeting both E-selectin and CXCR4 with a single compound could improve efficacy in the treatment of cancers that affect the bone and bone marrow, particularly solid tumors that have a propensity to metastasize to bone, such as breast and prostate cancer. We completed a Phase 1 randomized, double-blind,

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placebo-controlled, single-dose escalation trial of GMI-1359 in healthy volunteers. In this trial, volunteer participants received a single injection of either GMI-1359 or placebo, after which they were evaluated for safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics, or PK. This trial was conducted at a single site in the United States. GMI-1359 was generally well tolerated in this trial, with no participants experiencing serious adverse events. In the fourth quarter of 2019, we initiated a Phase 1b trial of GMI-1359 in hormone receptor positive breast cancer patients whose tumors have spread to bone, and the first patient was dosed in January 2020. The trial is being conducted at Duke University and will evaluate dose escalation as well as safety, PK and pharmacodynamics markers of biologic activity in these patients. In January 2020, the FDA granted GMI-1359 orphan drug designation and rare pediatric disease designation for the treatment of osteosarcoma, a rare cancer affecting approximately 900 adolescents each year in the United States. These designations are expected to make GMI-1359 eligible for priority review by the FDA.

In addition to our programs described above, we are also advancing other preclinical-stage programs. These programs include small-molecule glycomimetic compounds that inhibit the protein galectin-3, which we believe may have potential to be used for the treatment of fibrosis, cancer and cardiovascular disease.

We previously developed another glycomimetic drug candidate, rivipansel, a pan-selectin antagonist for the potential treatment of vaso-occlusive crisis, or VOC, a debilitating and painful condition that occurs periodically throughout the life of a person with sickle cell disease, or SCD. Rivipansel received fast track designation from the FDA as well as orphan drug designation from the FDA in the United States and from the European Medicines Agency, or EMA, in the European Union. We entered into an exclusive license agreement with Pfizer Inc., or the Pfizer Agreement, for Pfizer to further develop, obtain regulatory approval and potentially commercialize rivipansel worldwide. Pfizer conducted a pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of rivipansel in patients aged six and older with SCD who were hospitalized for VOC and required treatment with intravenous opioids. The clinical trial did not meet its primary or key secondary efficacy endpoints. Pfizer terminated the Pfizer Agreement effective as of April 2020, resulting in the transfer of development and commercialization rights, including the investigational new drug (IND) application for rivipansel, back to us.

In June 2020, the Foundation for Sickle Cell Disease Research, or FSCDR, released an abstract that presented new data from a post hoc analysis of the Phase 3 clinical trial data set. The abstract showed that patients experiencing acute VOC requiring hospitalization who were treated with rivipansel within approximately 26 hours of the onset of pain in their crisis experienced a statistically significant improvement in the primary efficacy endpoint of time to readiness for discharge. Specifically, the analysis showed a median improvement in time to readiness for discharge compared to placebo of 56.3 hours (p=0.03, 0.58 HR). The abstract has been accepted for a poster presentation at the September 2020 meeting of the FSCDR. We intend to discuss this and other data with the FDA to determine possible next steps, if any, for this program in acute VOC.

We commenced operations in 2003, and our operations to date have been limited to organizing and staffing our company, business planning, raising capital, developing our glycomimetics platform, identifying potential drug candidates, undertaking preclinical studies and conducting, both alone and in collaboration with third parties, clinical trials of uproleselan, GMI-1359 and rivipansel. To date, we have financed our operations primarily through private placements of our securities, up-front and milestone payments under our license and collaboration agreements and the net proceeds from public offerings of common stock, including sales of common stock under at-the-market sales facilities with Cowen and Company LLC, or Cowen. We have no approved drugs currently available for sale, and substantially all of our revenue to date has been revenue from up-front and milestone payments, although we have received nominal amounts of revenue under research grants.

Since inception, we have incurred significant operating losses. We had an accumulated deficit of $280.2 million as of June 30, 2020, and we expect to continue to incur significant expenses and operating losses over at least the next several years. Our net losses may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter and year to year, depending on the timing of our clinical trials and our expenditures on other research and development activities. We anticipate that our expenses will increase substantially as we:

initiate and conduct our planned clinical trials of uproleselan, GMI-1359 and GMI-1687, including fulfilling our funding and supply commitments related to the clinical trial of uproleselan being conducted in collaboration with NCI;

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conduct NDA-enabling activities related to manufacture, toxicology and clinical pharmacology for our product candidates;
manufacture additional uproleselan drug supplies for validation and prepare for commercialization;
seek to discover and develop additional drug candidates;
seek regulatory approvals for any drug candidates that successfully complete clinical trials;
ultimately establish a sales, marketing and distribution infrastructure and scale up external manufacturing capabilities to commercialize any drug candidates for which we may obtain regulatory approval;
maintain, expand and protect our intellectual property portfolio;
hire additional clinical, quality control, regulatory and scientific personnel; and
add operational, financial and management information systems and personnel, including personnel to support our drug development and potential future commercialization efforts.

To fund further operations, we will need to raise capital. We may obtain additional financing in the future through the issuance of our common stock, through other equity or debt financings, potentially including the use of our at-the-market sales facility with Cowen, or through collaborations or partnerships with other companies, such as our recent collaboration with Apollomics. We may not be able to raise additional capital on terms acceptable to us, or at all, and any failure to raise capital as and when needed could compromise our ability to execute on our business plan. For example, the current global COVID-19 pandemic presents material uncertainty and its disruption of the capital markets may have a material adverse impact on our ability to raise additional capital if we decide to do so. Although it is difficult to predict future liquidity requirements, we believe that our existing cash and cash equivalents will be sufficient to fund our operations into 2022. However, our ability to successfully transition to profitability will be dependent upon achieving a level of revenues adequate to support our cost structure. We cannot assure you that we will ever be profitable or generate positive cash flow from operating activities.

Impact of COVID-19 on Our Business

The imposition of “lockdown,” “social distancing” and “shelter in place” directives by state and federal governments in the United States as well as governments in other regions of the world in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, including in locations in which our Phase 3 clinical trial of uproleselan is being conducted, resulted in slowed clinical site initiation, patient recruitment and enrollment rates in April 2020. Enrollment rates more recently showed an encouraging upward trend. However, the COVID-19 infection rates continue to rise, especially in the United States, which could negatively effect enrollment going forward. We cannot at this time fully assess the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on our continued enrollment and whether the pandemic would potentially materially adversely impact the timing of completion of enrollment of our Phase 3 clinical trial. We continue to closely monitor the COVID-19 situation and any potential impact to our planned activities.

We have also implemented business continuity plans designed to address and mitigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our employees and our business. While to date we have experienced limited impacts beyond the earlier delays in recruitment in our ongoing uproleselan Phase 3 clinical trial, given the global economic slowdown, the overall disruption of global healthcare systems and the other risks and uncertainties associated with the pandemic, our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects could be materially adversely affected. We continue to closely monitor the COVID-19 situation as we evolve our business continuity plans and response strategy. In March 2020, our workforce transitioned to working remotely in accordance with federal and state declarations. We are currently preparing plans to reopen our office to allow employees to return to the office based on a phased approach that is consistent with federal and state guidelines, with a focus on employee safety and optimal work environment.

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Our Collaboration and License Agreements

Apollomics

In January 2020, we entered into an exclusive collaboration and license agreement with Apollomics (Hong Kong) Limited, or Apollomics, for the development and commercialization of uproleselan and GMI-1687 in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan, also known as Greater China. Under the terms of the agreement, Apollomics will be responsible for clinical development and commercialization in Greater China. We will also collaborate with Apollomics to advance the preclinical and clinical development of GMI-1687. We received an upfront cash payment of $9.0 million and, subject to the terms of the agreement, will be eligible to receive potential milestone payments totaling approximately $180.0 million, as well as tiered royalties ranging from the high single digits to 15%, as a percentage of net sales. Apollomics will be responsible for all costs related to development, regulatory approvals, and commercialization activities for uproleselan and GMI-1687 in Greater China, and we and Apollomics expect to enter into clinical and commercial supply agreements with respect to our provision of uproleselan and GMI-1687 to Apollomics. We retain all rights for both compounds in the rest of the world.

Pfizer

In October 2011, we entered into the Pfizer Agreement, under which we granted Pfizer an exclusive worldwide license to develop and commercialize products containing rivipansel for all fields and uses. Pfizer was required to use commercially reasonable efforts, at its expense, to develop, obtain regulatory approval for and commercialize rivipansel for SCD in the United States. On August 2, 2019, Pfizer announced that its pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of rivipansel in patients aged six and older with SCD who were hospitalized for a vaso-occlusive crisis and required treatment with intravenous opioids did not meet its primary or key secondary efficacy endpoints. Pfizer terminated the Pfizer Agreement, effective as of April 5, 2020, and we now hold all rights to the potential future development and commercialization of rivipansel. We did not earn any revenue or receive any payments from Pfizer during the six months ended June 30, 2020 or 2019 and will not be eligible to receive any future payments from Pfizer following the termination of the Pfizer Agreement.

University of Basel

We entered into a research services agreement, or the Research Agreement, with the University of Basel, or the University, for biological evaluation of selectin antagonists. While the scope of work under the Research Agreement ended in 2017, certain patents covering the rivipansel compound are subject to provisions of the Research Agreement. Under the terms of the Research Agreement, we owed the University 10% of any milestone and royalty payments received from Pfizer with respect to rivipansel. There were no payments due to the University for the six months ended June 30, 2020 or 2019, and as a result of the termination of the Pfizer Agreement, we do not expect to make any future payments to the University.

Critical Accounting Policies and Significant Judgments and Estimates

Our management’s discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based on our financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses in our financial statements. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates and judgments, including those related to our revenue recognition, accrued research and development expenses, stock-based compensation expense and income taxes. We base our estimates on historical experience, known trends and events and various other factors that we believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other resources. Actual results may differ from these estimates and judgments under different assumptions or conditions. We periodically review our estimates in light of changes in circumstances, facts and experience. The effects of material revisions in estimates are reflected in our financial statements prospectively from the date of the change in estimate.

We define our critical accounting policies as those accounting principles generally accepted in the United States that require us to make subjective estimates and judgments about matters that are uncertain and are likely to have a

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material impact on our financial condition and results of operations, as well as the specific manner in which we apply those principles. For a description of our critical accounting policies, please see the disclosures in Part II, Item 7 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019. There have not been any material changes to our critical accounting policies since December 31, 2019.

Components of Operating Results

Revenue

To date, we have not generated any revenue from the sale of our drug candidates and do not expect to generate any revenue from the sale of drugs in the near future. Substantially all of our historical revenue has consisted of upfront and milestone payments under the agreements with Pfizer and Apollomics.

Research and Development

Research and development expenses consist of expenses incurred in performing research and development activities, including compensation and benefits for full-time research and development employees, facilities expenses, overhead expenses, cost of laboratory supplies, clinical trial and related clinical manufacturing expenses, fees paid to CROs and other consultants and other outside expenses. Other preclinical research and platform programs include activities related to exploratory efforts, target validation, lead optimization for our earlier programs and our proprietary glycomimetics platform. Our research and development expenses have related primarily to the development of rivipansel, uproleselan and our other drug candidates.

We do not currently utilize a formal time allocation system to capture expenses on a project-by-project basis because we are organized and record expense by functional department and our employees may allocate time to more than one development project. Accordingly, we only allocate a portion of our research and development expenses by functional area and by drug candidate.

Research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Non-refundable advance payments for goods or services to be received in the future for use in research and development activities are deferred and capitalized. The capitalized amounts are expensed as the related goods are delivered or the services are performed.

Research and development activities are central to our business model. Drug candidates in later stages of clinical development generally have higher development costs than those in earlier stages of clinical development, primarily due to the increased size and duration of later stage clinical trials. We expect our research and development expenses to increase over the next several years as we seek to progress uproleselan, GMI-1359 and our other drug candidates into and through clinical development. However, it is difficult to determine with certainty the duration and completion costs of our current or future preclinical studies and clinical trials of our drug candidates, or if, when or to what extent we will generate revenues from the commercialization and sale of any of our drug candidates that obtain regulatory approval. We may never succeed in achieving regulatory approval for any of our drug candidates.

The duration, costs and timing of clinical trials and development of our drug candidates will depend on a variety of factors that include:

per patient trial costs;
the number of patients that participate in the trials;
the number of sites included in the trials;
the countries in which the trial is conducted;
the length of time required to enroll eligible patients, which could be lengthened as a result of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic; the number of doses that patients receive;
the drop-out or discontinuation rates of patients;
potential additional safety monitoring or other studies requested by regulatory agencies;

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the duration of patient follow-up; and
the safety and efficacy profile of the drug candidate.

In addition, the probability of success for each drug candidate will depend on numerous factors, including competition, manufacturing capability and commercial viability. We will determine which programs to pursue and how much to fund each program in response to the scientific and clinical success of each drug candidate, as well as an assessment of each drug candidate’s commercial potential.

General and Administrative

General and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries and other related costs, including stock-based compensation, for personnel in executive, finance, accounting, business development and human resources functions. Other significant costs include facility costs not otherwise included in research and development expenses, legal fees relating to patent and corporate matters and fees for accounting and consulting services. We anticipate that our general and administrative expenses will increase in the future to support our continued research and development activities.

Interest Income

Interest income consists of interest income earned on our cash and cash equivalents.

Results of Operations for the Three and Six Months Ended June 30, 2020 and 2019

The following tables set forth our results of operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019:

Three Months Ended June 30, 

Period-to-Period

(in thousands)

    

2020

    

2019

    

Change

Revenue

$

$

$

Costs and expenses:

Research and development expense

 

9,871

 

13,065

 

(3,194)

General and administrative expense

 

4,235

 

3,751

 

484

Total costs and expenses

 

14,106

 

16,816

 

(2,710)

Loss from operations

 

(14,106)

 

(16,816)

 

2,710

Interest income

 

27

 

986

 

(959)

Net loss and comprehensive loss

$

(14,079)

$

(15,830)

$

1,751

Six Months Ended June 30, 

Period-to-Period

(in thousands)

   

2020

    

2019

    

Change

Revenue

$

9,000

$

$

9,000

Costs and expenses:

Research and development expense

 

22,539

 

24,838

 

(2,299)

General and administrative expense

 

8,675

 

7,111

 

1,564

Total costs and expenses

 

31,214