glyc_Current_Folio_10K

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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549


FORM 10-K


ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)

OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019

Commission file number 001-36177


GlycoMimetics, Inc.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)


 

 

 

Delaware

06-1686563

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

(IRS Employer

Identification No.)

 

 

 

 

9708 Medical Center Drive

Rockville, Maryland

20850

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

 

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (240) 243-1201

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

 

 

Title of Each Class:

Trading Symbol:

Name of Each Exchange on which Registered

Common Stock, $0.001 par value

GLYC

The Nasdaq Stock Market

 

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None


Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  ◻    No ☒

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  ◻    No ☒

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes ☒    No ◻

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes ☒    No ◻

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

 

 

 

Large Accelerated Filer

Accelerated Filer

Non-accelerated Filer

Smaller Reporting Company

Emerging Growth Company ◻

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ◻

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).   Yes ◻   No ☒

As of June 28, 2019, the last business day of the registrant’s last completed second quarter, the aggregate market value of the Common Stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $399.5 million based on the closing price of the registrant’s Common Stock, as reported by the Nasdaq Global Market, on such date.

At February 26, 2020, 43,582,979 shares of GlycoMimetics, Inc.’s Common Stock, $0.001 par value per share, were outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of GlycoMimetics, Inc.’s definitive proxy statement, to be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, for its 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K.

 

 

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K, or this Annual Report, contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. The forward-looking statements are contained principally in Part I, Item 1. “Business,” Part I, Item 1A. “Risk Factors,” and Part II, Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” but are also contained elsewhere in this Annual Report. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by the words “may,” “might,” “will,” “could,” “would,” “should,” “expect,” “intend,” “plan,” “objective,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “project,” “potential,” “continue” and “ongoing,” or the negative of these terms, or other comparable terminology intended to identify statements about the future. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from the information expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. Although we believe that we have a reasonable basis for each forward-looking statement contained in this Annual Report, we caution you that these statements are based on a combination of facts and factors currently known by us and our expectations of the future, about which we cannot be certain. Forward-looking statements include statements about:

·

our plans to develop and commercialize our glycomimetic drug candidates;

·

our and our collaborators’ ongoing and planned clinical trials for our drug candidates uproleselan and GMI-1359, including the timing of initiation of and enrollment in the trials, the timing of availability of data from the trials and the anticipated results of the trials;

·

the timing of and our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approvals for our drug candidates;

·

the clinical utility of our drug candidates;

·

our plans with respect to the development of our drug candidate, rivipansel;

·

our commercialization, marketing and manufacturing capabilities and strategy;

·

our intellectual property position;

·

our ability to identify additional drug candidates with significant commercial potential that are consistent with our commercial objectives;

·

our estimates regarding future revenues, expenses and needs for additional financing;

·

our beliefs about our capital expenditure requirements and that our capital resources will be sufficient to meet our anticipated cash requirements into 2022; and

·

the timing of completion of enrollment in our Phase 3 clinical trial of uproleselan in individuals with relapsed/refractory AML.

You should refer to Item 1A. “Risk Factors” section of this Annual Report for a discussion of important factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by our forward-looking statements. As a result of these factors, we cannot assure you that the forward-looking statements in this Annual Report will prove to be accurate. Furthermore, if our forward-looking statements prove to be inaccurate, the inaccuracy may be material. In light of the significant uncertainties in these forward-looking statements, you should not regard these statements as a representation or warranty by us or any other person that we will achieve our objectives and plans in any specified time frame, or at all. We undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law. You should, therefore, not rely on these forward-looking statements as representing our views as of any date subsequent to the date of this Annual Report.

 

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Page

PART I  

 

1

 

ITEM 1.

BUSINESS

1

 

ITEM 1A.

RISK FACTORS

25

 

ITEM 1B.

UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

52

 

ITEM 2.

PROPERTIES

52

 

ITEM 3.

LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

52

 

ITEM 4.

MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

52

PART II  

 

52

 

ITEM 5.

MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

52

 

ITEM 6.

SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

54

 

ITEM 7.

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

55

 

ITEM 7A.

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

66

 

ITEM 8.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

66

 

ITEM 9.

CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE

66

 

ITEM 9A.

CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

66

 

ITEM 9B.

OTHER INFORMATION

67

PART III 

 

67

 

ITEM 10.

DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

67

 

ITEM 11.

EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION

68

 

ITEM 12.

SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS

68

 

ITEM 13.

CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS, AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE

68

 

ITEM 14.

PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTING FEES AND SERVICES

68

PART IV 

 

68

 

ITEM 15.

EXHIBITS, FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES

68

 

ITEM 16.

FORM 10-K SUMMARY

71

SIGNATURES  

72

 

 

 

 

 

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PART I  

ITEM  1.BUSINESS  

Company Overview

We are a clinical-stage biotechnology company focused on the discovery and development of novel glycomimetic drugs to address unmet medical needs resulting from diseases in which carbohydrate biology plays a key role. We are developing a pipeline of proprietary glycomimetics, which are small molecules that mimic the structure of carbohydrates involved in important biological processes, to inhibit disease-related functions of carbohydrates such as the roles they play in inflammation, cancer and infection. We believe this represents an innovative approach to drug discovery to treat a wide range of diseases. We are focusing our efforts on drug candidates for rare diseases that we believe will qualify for orphan drug designation.

Our proprietary glycomimetics platform is based on our expertise in carbohydrate chemistry and our understanding of the role carbohydrates play in key biological processes. Most human proteins are modified by the addition of complex carbohydrate structures to the surface of such proteins, which affects the functions of the proteins and their interactions with other molecules. Our initial research and development efforts have focused on drug candidates targeting selectins, which are proteins that serve as adhesion molecules and bind to carbohydrates that are involved in the inflammatory component and progression of a wide range of diseases, including hematologic disorders, cancer and cardiovascular disease. For example, we believe that members of the selectin family play a key role in tumor metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy. Inhibiting specific carbohydrates from binding to selectins has long been viewed as a potentially attractive approach for therapeutic intervention. The ability to successfully develop drug-like compounds that inhibit binding with selectins, known as selectin antagonists, has been limited by the complexities of carbohydrate chemistry. We believe our expertise in carbohydrate chemistry and our understanding of carbohydrate-protein binding interactions enables us to design selectin antagonists and other glycomimetics that may inhibit the disease-related functions of certain carbohydrates in order to develop novel drug candidates to address orphan diseases with high unmet medical need.

Overview of Our Drug Candidates

Uproleselan

We are developing uproleselan, a specific E-selectin inhibitor, to be used in combination with chemotherapy to treat patients with acute myeloid leukemia, or AML, a life-threatening hematologic cancer, and potentially other hematologic cancers. Uproleselan has been granted breakthrough therapy designation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, for the treatment of adults with relapsed or refractory AML. In addition, uproleselan has received orphan drug designation from the FDA and the European Commission for the treatment of AML.

E-selectin plays a critical role in binding cancer cells within vascular niches in the bone marrow, which prevents the cells from entering circulation where they can be more readily killed by chemotherapy. In animal studies, uproleselan mobilized AML cancer cells out of the bone marrow, making them more sensitive to chemotherapy. In these studies, tumor burden was significantly reduced in the animals treated with a combination of chemotherapy and uproleselan as compared to animals treated with chemotherapy alone. In addition, the combination of uproleselan with chemotherapy resulted in improved survival rates for the treated animals compared to chemotherapy alone. In other animal studies, uproleselan appeared to also protect normal cells from some of the side effects of chemotherapy. Common side effects of chemotherapy include bone marrow toxicity resulting in neutropenia, which is an abnormally low number of neutrophils, the white blood cells that serve as the primary defense against infection, and mucositis, which is the inflammation and sloughing of the mucous membranes lining the digestive tract. Animals treated with uproleselan and chemotherapy had less severe neutropenia and mucositis and lower bone marrow toxicity as compared to animals treated with chemotherapy alone. We believe that treatment with uproleselan results in lower bone marrow toxicity due to its inhibition of E-selectin, which inhibition makes stem cells in the bone marrow divide less frequently, thereby protecting them from chemotherapy agents that target rapidly dividing cells.

 

We completed an initial Phase 1 trial in healthy volunteers for uproleselan and in May 2017 we completed enrollment in a Phase 1/2 clinical trial in patients with either relapsed/refractory or de novo/secondary AML. In December 2018, at the annual meeting of the American Society of Hematology, or ASH, we presented final clinical data from the Phase 1/2 trial that showed high remission rates, improved overall survival and improved event-free survival,

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all compared to historical controls derived from third-party clinical trials evaluating treatment with standard chemotherapy. In November 2018, we dosed the first patient in a Phase 3 clinical trial to evaluate uproleselan in adults with relapsed/refractory AML. In 2018, we entered into an agreement with the National Cancer Institute, or NCI, to further evaluate uproleselan in a separate clinical trial for the treatment of AML in older adults who are eligible for intensive chemotherapy. The first patient in this NCI-sponsored trial was dosed in April 2019.

GMI-1687

As a potential life-cycle extension to uproleselan, our scientists have rationally designed an innovative antagonist of E-selectin, GMI-1687, that could be suitable for subcutaneous administration. When given by subcutaneous injection in animal models, GMI-1687 has been observed to have equivalent activity to uproleselan, but at an approximately 1,000-fold lower dose. We believe that GMI-1687 could be developed to broaden the clinical usefulness of an E-selectin antagonist to conditions where outpatient treatment is preferred or required. We are currently conducting studies with GMI-1687 to support our planned submission of an investigational new drug application, or IND, to the FDA.

GMI-1359

We are developing an additional clinical drug candidate, GMI-1359, that simultaneously targets both E-selectin and a chemokine receptor known as CXCR4. Since E-selectin and CXCR4 are implicated in the retention of cancer cells in the bone and bone marrow, we believe that targeting both E-selectin and CXCR4 with a single compound could improve efficacy in the treatment of solid tumors that have a propensity to metastasize to bone, such as breast and prostate cancer. We completed a Phase 1 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose escalation trial of GMI-1359 in healthy volunteers. In this trial, volunteer participants received a single injection of either GMI-1359 or placebo, after which they were evaluated for safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics, or PK. This trial was conducted at a single site in the United States. GMI-1359 was generally well tolerated in this trial, with no participants experiencing serious adverse events. We initiated a Phase 1b trial of GMI-1359 in hormone receptor positive, or HR+, breast cancer patients whose tumors have spread to bone in the fourth quarter of 2019, and the first patient was dosed in January 2020. The trial is being conducted at Duke University and will evaluate dose escalation as well as safety, PK and pharmacodynamics, or PD, markers of biologic activity in these patients. In January 2020, the FDA granted GMI-1359 orphan drug designation and rare pediatric disease designation for the treatment of osteosarcoma, a rare cancer affecting approximately 900 adolescents each year in the United States. These designations are expected to make GMI-1359 eligible for priority review by the FDA.

Galectin Antagonists

Galectin-3 is a carbohydrate-binding protein whose expression has been shown to play a central role in fibrosis and cancer. Galectin-3 has been linked to a number of biologic processes including inflammation, aberrant cell activation and proliferation (macrophages, neutrophils, and mast cells), fibrogenesis and ultimately, organ dysfunction. Experimental data have implicated galectin-3 in a variety of diseases across a number of organ systems, including liver, kidney, lung, eye and heart. In our preclinical studies, blockage of galectin-3 has been shown to prevent fibrosis following organ damage, which we believe makes it a promising target for further evaluation and development.

Current research also indicates that galectins have important roles in modulating the immune and inflammatory response to cancer that contributes to neoplastic transformation, tumor cell survival, angiogenesis and metastasis. Applying our understanding of carbohydrate biology and chemistry, we have rationally designed several high-potency, selective, small-molecule glycomimetic antagonists of galectin-3. These novel compounds have been observed to have anti-fibrotic activity in our animal models of disease.

Rivipansel

We previously developed rivipansel, a glycomimetic drug that acts as a pan-selectin antagonist that binds to all three members of the selectin family, E-, P- and L-selectin, for the treatment of vaso-occlusive crisis, or VOC, a debilitating and painful condition that occurs periodically throughout the life of a person with sickle cell disease, or SCD. We exclusively licensed rivipansel to Pfizer Inc., or Pfizer, in 2011 for clinical development and worldwide commercialization.  Pfizer conducted a pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of rivipansel in patients aged six and older with SCD who were hospitalized for VOC and required treatment with intravenous opioids.

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On August 2, 2019, Pfizer announced that the clinical trial did not meet its primary or key secondary efficacy endpoints. On February 5, 2020, Pfizer delivered notice to us of its termination of the license agreement, effective as of April 5, 2020. We will work with Pfizer to effectuate any necessary transition activities in connection with the termination of the license agreement, and will be determining what, if any, next steps to take with respect to the rivipansel program after reviewing the Phase 3 data more completely.

Following the termination of the license agreement with Pfizer, the worldwide development and commercialization rights to rivipansel will revert to us. We have retained such rights to all of our other drug candidates, except that with respect to uproleselan and GMI-1687, we have exclusively licensed development and commercialization rights to these drug candidates to Apollomics (Hong Kong) Limited, or Apollomics, for Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan, or collectively, Greater China.

 

 “GlycoMimetics,” the GlycoMimetics logo and other trademarks or service marks of GlycoMimetics, Inc. appearing in this Annual Report are the property of GlycoMimetics, Inc. This Annual Report contains additional trade names, trademarks and service marks of others, which are the property of their respective owners.

Our Strategy

Our goal is to be the leader in the discovery, development and commercialization of novel glycomimetic drugs to address unmet medical needs resulting from diseases in which carbohydrate biology plays a key role. Leveraging the potentially broad applicability of our proprietary glycomimetics platform, our initial focus is to internally develop and advance orphan drug candidates targeted at hematologic cancers and other diseases, and to out-license any drug candidates we may develop that are targeted at larger market opportunities. The key elements of our strategy are to:

·

Complete clinical development of and obtain regulatory approvals for uproleselan for the treatment of adults with relapsed/refractory AML.  Based on the positive Phase 1/2 clinical trial results presented at ASH in 2018, we are currently conducting a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase 3 clinical trial to evaluate uproleselan in adults with relapsed/refractory AML, with the design of the trial aligned with guidance we received from the FDA. In this single pivotal trial, we plan to enroll approximately 380 adult patients with relapsed or refractory AML at centers in the United States, Canada, Europe and Australia. Enrollment began in the fourth quarter of 2018, and we expect to complete enrollment in the second half of 2021. If the results from this Phase 3 clinical trial are positive, we plan to apply for regulatory approval from the FDA and the European Medicines Agency, or EMA.

·

Explore the potential use of uproleselan in other AML patient populations through third-party collaborations.  In May 2018, we signed a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement, or CRADA, with the NCI, part of the National Institutes of Health. Under the terms of the CRADA, we will collaborate with both the NCI and the Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology to conduct a randomized, controlled clinical trial evaluating the addition of uproleselan to a standard Cytarabine/Daunorubicin chemotherapy regimen (7&3) in older adults with previously untreated AML who are eligible for intensive chemotherapy. The primary endpoint will be overall survival, with a planned interim analysis based on event-free survival after the first 250 patients have been enrolled in the trial. Under the terms of the CRADA, the NCI may fund additional research, including clinical trials of pediatric patients with AML as well as preclinical experiments and clinical trials evaluating alternative chemotherapy regimens.

·

Expand the potential use of E-selectin inhibition (uproleselan and GMI-1687) in other select territories through out-licensing arrangements. In January 2020, we entered into an exclusive collaboration and license agreement with Apollomics for the development and commercialization of uproleselan and GMI-1687 in Greater China. Apollomics will be responsible at its cost for clinical development and commercialization of uproleselan in Greater China, and will work with us to advance the preclinical and clinical development of GMI-1687. We expect to enter into separate agreements to provide clinical and commercial supplies of uproleselan and GMI-1687 to Apollomics, and we retain all rights for both compounds in the rest of the world.

 

·

Advance the clinical development of GMI-1359 for the treatment of cancers that affect the bone and bone marrow. Following completion of a Phase 1 single-dose escalation trial in healthy volunteers in 2018, in the fourth quarter of 2019 we initiated a Phase 1b trial of GMI-1359 in HR+ breast cancer patients

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whose tumors have spread to bone, and the first patient was dosed in January 2020. The trial is being conducted at Duke University and will evaluate dose escalation as well as safety, PK and PD markers of biologic activity in these patients.

 

·

Identify and develop additional novel selectin antagonists to address unmet medical needs with significant market potential.  We believe our glycomimetics platform will enable us to develop a broad pipeline of potential drug candidates that may be orphan products or may address larger market opportunities. We have identified a highly potent E-selectin / galectin-3 antagonist which we believe could be of value in potential major market opportunities, such as the treatment of certain fibrotic conditions and inflammatory diseases.

·

Apply our insights and our glycomimetics platform to other carbohydrate targets beyond selectins.  We have identified additional opportunities where carbohydrates play critical roles in disease processes and where we believe we can apply our platform to create targeted glycomimetic drugs. We have designed inhibitors that specifically block the binding of galectin-3 to carbohydrate structures. We plan to optimize these compounds and conduct additional preclinical studies to further characterize the effects of galectin-3 inhibitors on inflammation and fibrosis, as well as immune processes. We are also designing other galectin inhibitors with dual functional inhibition of E-selectin that we believe could be used to treat various diseases.

Our Platform

Our proprietary glycomimetics platform is based on our expertise in carbohydrate chemistry and our understanding of the role carbohydrates play in key biological processes. Carbohydrate structures on cell surfaces are responsible for complex carbohydrate-protein binding interactions. Inhibiting these binding interactions affects the functions of these proteins and their interactions with other molecules. We believe our expertise enables us to design specific glycomimetic molecules that can mimic carbohydrate structures and thereby inhibit their disease-related functions.

Our initial focus is on selectin antagonists, which we believe have the potential to address unmet medical needs in a number of orphan and large market opportunities. Selectins have been shown to play a key role in a wide range of diseases, including hematologic disorders, inflammatory diseases, infection, cancer and cardiovascular disease.

Our initial drug design efforts are focused on a naturally occurring, three-dimensional complex carbohydrate core structure known as the Lewis structure. This core structure is naturally modified in a variety of ways to form many different functional carbohydrates. These variations determine the biological functions of the carbohydrates, including functions related to conditions defined above. Accordingly, we believe that this structure provides the foundation for the design of glycomimetic drug candidates that could be used to address a variety of diseases.

 

Once we identify a carbohydrate structure involved in a disease pathway, we design molecules that mimic that carbohydrate structure and inhibit its disease-related functions by binding to the carbohydrate’s target receptor, thereby blocking the binding by the native carbohydrate itself. For example, one of the naturally modified Lewis structures binds to selectins, which play a key role in adhesion of AML blasts to the vasculature of the bone marrow.  Uproleselan mimics that carbohydrate structure and accordingly binds to selectins, which we believe thereby inhibits the adhesion of AML blasts and renders them more susceptible to killing with cytotoxic chemotherapies. In addition, our glycomimetic molecules are designed to have greater affinity to the carbohydrate’s target receptor than does the native carbohydrate. This means that the glycomimetic molecules possess stronger intermolecular forces between themselves and the target receptors, and thus “outcompete” the native carbohydrates in binding to the relevant target receptors, thereby inhibiting their disease-related functions. Using our glycomimetics platform, we have designed and synthesized a proprietary library of these structures targeting different biological processes.

Our glycomimetics platform includes intellectual property, know-how, expertise, proprietary biological information and biochemical assays, all of which support the rational design of potent glycomimetic compounds. These include:

·

Know-how to successfully mimic the Lewis structure, which is common to a number of functional carbohydrates.

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·

Use of empirical methods to determine critical interactions between variations of a particular functional carbohydrate and its target molecule.

·

Application of the empirically determined bioactive structure of the functional carbohydrate for docking into the binding area of the crystal structure of the target molecule.

·

Expertise in stabilizing the bioactive core of glycomimetic compounds and increasing the number of interaction contact points to improve affinity.

·

Experience and technology in synthetic organic chemistry required for the specialized synthesis of carbohydrates and their modifications.

·

Proprietary assays to determine the binding characteristics, inhibitory activity and biological activity of glycomimetic compounds.

Our Pipeline

We have discovered our drug candidates internally through a rational drug design approach that couples our expertise in carbohydrate chemistry with our knowledge of carbohydrate biology. We are actively developing glycomimetic drug candidates based on this expertise. Our drug candidates and their target indications and development status are summarized in the chart below.

A:\Financial Reporting\2019\Q4 2019\Pipeline Revised 2.27.2020.jpg

Uproleselan —Targeting the Bone Marrow Microenvironment to Treat Hematologic Cancers

We are developing uproleselan, a specific E-selectin antagonist, to be used adjunctively with standard chemotherapy to treat AML and other hematologic cancers. We believe that uproleselan may be used as first-line treatment for elderly patients with AML or for patients with relapsed or refractory AML. Uproleselan targets interactions between cancer cells and the bone marrow microenvironment. In preclinical studies, combining uproleselan with chemotherapy made cancer cells more sensitive to chemotherapy. In other preclinical studies, uproleselan also reduced some of the toxic effects of chemotherapy, including neutropenia and mucositis, on normal cells.

 

Uproleselan received orphan drug designation from the FDA in May 2015 for the treatment of patients with AML. In June 2016, uproleselan received fast track designation from the FDA for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory AML and elderly patients aged 60 years or older with AML. In May 2017, uproleselan received

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breakthrough therapy designation from the FDA for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory AML. In May 2017, the European Commission, based on a favorable recommendation from the EMA Committee for Orphan Medicinal Products, granted orphan designation for uproleselan for the treatment of patients with AML.

Acute Myeloid Leukemia

AML, a hematologic cancer that is characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal white blood cells that accumulate in the bone marrow and interfere with the production of normal blood cells, is a relatively rare disease, but one that accounts for the largest number of annual deaths from leukemia in the United States. According to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program managed by the NCI, there were an estimated 21,450 new cases of AML diagnosed in 2019 in the United States. AML caused an estimated 10,920 deaths in 2019 in the United States.

AML is more commonly present in elderly patients, with a median age at diagnosis of 68 years old according to the NCI. In a review published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, the median overall survival of patients 60 years old or older was nine months. The overall five-year relative survival rate for all AML patients from 2009 to 2015 was 28.3%. Relative survival is a statistical measure of net survival that is calculated by comparing observed survival with expected survival from a comparable set of people who do not have AML, in order to measure the excess mortality that is associated with the AML diagnosis.

A number of published studies indicate that only some AML patients who receive chemotherapy achieve a complete response, which is defined as the disappearance of all signs of AML, and that most patients with a complete response will eventually relapse. Patients who do not enter remission are referred to as refractory, meaning that they are resistant to the chemotherapy treatment.

We believe there is a need for new treatment options for elderly patients with AML, as well as those AML patients who relapse or develop refractory disease. Most AML patients with relapsed or refractory disease have no established treatment options and, accordingly, may be referred for participation in clinical studies of potential new therapies. For patients who elect not to participate or are unable to participate, treatment options typically include chemotherapy regimens, hypomethylating agents and supportive care. Further, many elderly patients with AML are too frail to undergo chemotherapy as a result of other medical conditions, and may only be able to tolerate pain comfort or control measures. Without treatment, however, AML is uniformly fatal.

 

Role of E-selectin in AML

E-selectin has been shown to play important roles in the progression of AML. This has been observed in several studies, which have shown that levels of E-selectin correlate with tumor infiltration and relapse in AML. We therefore believe that our E-selectin antagonist, uproleselan, has the potential to improve the current treatment of patients with AML.

Uproleselan Preclinical Development

Leukemia cells can bind to E-selectin in the bone marrow where they are relatively protected from the effects of chemotherapy. This phenomenon is now known as environment-mediated drug resistance, or EMDR. We believe that E-selectin inhibition disrupts the cell adhesion involved in EMDR and mobilizes blasts out of the bone marrow and into the bloodstream, making them more susceptible to chemotherapy. We believe that this mechanism of action may allow uproleselan to improve chemotherapy response rates, duration of remission and, ultimately, survival in patients with hematologic cancers such as AML.

In one in vivo study in a mouse model of AML, combining uproleselan with chemotherapy, mobilized AML blast cells and significantly reduced tumor burden as compared to treatment with chemotherapy alone. In an in vitro study, AML cells once bound to E-selectin were more resistant to chemotherapy. In a related study, when treated with uproleselan, the resistance of such cells to chemotherapy was reduced. Tumor cells of patients who have relapsed AML, when tested in the laboratory, bound significantly higher levels of E-selectin than tumor cells of patients at initial diagnosis. Additional preclinical studies in mouse models of AML, in which E-selectin was observed to be upregulated, suggest that AML cells binding to E-selectin have increased chemo-resistance.  This is due to the induction of tumor cell survival signaling pathways as a consequence of E-selectin binding. This effect within the bone marrow microenvironment is unique to E-selectin as compared to other vascular adhesion molecules and can be blocked by

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uproleselan.   The results of this preclinical study were presented in an oral presentation at the 59th annual ASH meeting in December 2017, and we believe the findings provide important information about how treatment with uproleselan may improve sensitivity to chemotherapy.

As uproleselan disrupts the interactions between cancer cells and bone marrow microenvironment, its mechanism of action is not limited to a single tumor type. In addition to our studies in AML, we have also tested the drug candidate in other cancer models. In in vivo studies involving animal models of multiple myeloma, chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia, uproleselan, as an adjunct to standard-of-care chemotherapy, decreased tumor burden and improved survival over chemotherapy alone. 

In addition to its anti-tumor effects, uproleselan, in animal models, has shown protection against some of the toxicities of chemotherapy. In particular, animals treated with uproleselan in combination with chemotherapy had less severe neutropenia and mucositis and lower bone marrow toxicity as compared to animals treated with chemotherapy alone. We believe that treatment with uproleselan results in lower bone marrow toxicity due to its inhibition of E-selectin, thereby making hematopoietic stem cells divide less frequently and protecting them from chemotherapy agents that target rapidly dividing cells. Hematopoietic stem cells are blood cells that give rise to all other types of blood cells and are heavily concentrated in the bone marrow. Similar effects have been demonstrated with rivipansel and were published in the journal Nature Medicine in December 2012. Based on these reductions in some of the toxicities of chemotherapy, we are evaluating these effects as secondary efficacy endpoints in our clinical trials.

 

Expanding the Utility of E-selectin antagonists

During the 2018 annual ASH meeting, we reported on the preclinical development of a highly potent antagonist of E-selectin, GMI-1687, which demonstrated significant activity in animal models previously reported for uproleselan but at an approximately 1,000-fold lower dose. This level of activity was obtained following injections under the skin and could alleviate the need for intravenous infusions. Based on these compound characteristics, we believe GMI-1687 could potentially be used in outpatient settings where an E-selectin antagonist has therapeutic relevance. We are currently conducting IND-enabling studies of GMI-1687.

 

Uproleselan Clinical Trials

In 2014, we completed a Phase 1 trial of uproleselan in healthy volunteers. The single-site Phase 1 trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single ascending intravenous dose trial. In the trial, we evaluated the safety, tolerability and PK of uproleselan. Twenty-eight healthy adult subjects were enrolled in cohorts to receive study drug at three dose levels. In the trial, we observed that the subjects tolerated uproleselan well, and that the PK for uproleselan were consistent with what was predicted based on preclinical data. 

In 2015, we commenced a multinational, Phase 1/2, open-label trial of uproleselan as an adjunct to standard chemotherapy in patients with AML. This trial in males and females with AML was conducted at a number of academic institutions in the United States, Ireland and Australia. The trial consisted of two parts. In the Phase 1 portion, escalation testing was performed to determine a recommended uproleselan dose in combination with standard chemotherapy to be used in the Phase 2 portion. In the Phase 2 portion of the trial, dose expansion was performed at the recommended dose of 10 mg/kg uproleselan in combination with standard chemotherapy. The primary objective of the trial was to evaluate the safety of uproleselan in combination with chemotherapy. Secondary objectives were to characterize PK and PD and to observe anti-leukemic activity. A total of 19 patients with relapsed or refractory AML were enrolled and dosed with a single cycle of treatment with uproleselan and chemotherapy in the Phase 1 portion of the trial.  In the Phase 2 portion, one cohort of 25 patients over 60 years of age with newly diagnosed AML and a second cohort of 47 patients with relapsed or refractory AML were enrolled. Unlike in the Phase 1 portion, some of the patients in the Phase 2 portion were eligible to receive multiple cycles of uproleselan with chemotherapy.

   

In December 2018, we presented final efficacy and correlative results from the Phase 1/2 trial at the annual ASH meeting. Key highlights from the Phase 1/2 clinical data include the following:

 

·

Relapsed/Refractory (R/R) AML Cohort: At the recommended Phase 2 dose (RP2D), CR (complete remission)/CRi (complete remission with incomplete blood count recovery) rate was 41%, median overall survival, or OS, was 8.8 months (95% CI 5.7-11.4) and 69% of evaluable patients (11/16) achieved measurable residual disease negativity as assessed by either flow and/or DNA-based methods such as

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reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). OS will be the primary outcome measure in our ongoing Phase 3 trial in relapsed/refractory AML patients.  In historical controls, OS of approximately 5.2-5.4 months has been observed in this population with this treatment approach. If in the Phase 3 trial we are able to achieve OS results in the Phase 3 trial comparable to those observed in the Phase 1/2 clinical trial, it could be a significant improvement over the results observed in these historical controls. 

 

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Newly Diagnosed AML Cohort: At the RP2D, CR/CRi rate was 72%, median overall survival was 12.6 months (95% CI 9.9-not reached), EFS was 9.2 months (95% CI 3.0-12.6) and 56% of evaluable patients (5 out of 9) achieved measurable residual disease negativity as assessed by either flow and/or DNA-based methods such as RT-PCR. Of note, the EFS data (primary outcome measure for the interim analysis in the NCI-sponsored clinical trial in newly diagnosed AML patients) compares favorably to a range of 2.0-6.5 months for EFS in historical controls, which generally included lower risk patient populations than those treated in our Phase 1/2 trial. 

 

·

An analysis of E-selectin ligand expression on leukemic cells demonstrated that detectable levels were present on leukemic blasts for every patient tested, providing clinical evidence of biological relevance of the E-selectin ligand in this disease setting. In bone marrow samples, leukemic stem cell expression of E-selectin ligand correlated with leukemic blast E-selectin ligand expression (p<0.0001), consistent with the hypothesis that E-selectin-mediated interactions are a mechanism of chemoresistance. Additionally, investigators assessed the association between baseline E-selectin ligand expression on leukemic blasts and clinical outcomes using a log-rank test. In the R/R cohort of patients evaluated, this analysis demonstrated that ≥10% E-selectin ligand expression at baseline was correlated with prolonged survival (p<0.01) for patients treated with uproleselan. We believe this observation is important because in patients not treated with uproleselan the scientific literature has instead observed that high levels of E-selectin ligand correlated with a worse clinical prognosis. The addition of uproleselan in our study appears to have reversed this trend toward worsened prognosis, and we believe this result may be achieved through the restoration of chemosensitivity.

 

Based on these positive results, we are conducting a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase 3 clinical trial to evaluate uproleselan in individuals with relapsed/refractory AML, with a trial design aligned with guidance received from the FDA. Based on consultations with the FDA, this single pivotal trial is planned to enroll approximately 380 adult patients with relapsed or refractory AML at centers in the United States, Canada, Europe and Australia. To best capture the full benefits of uproleselan, the primary efficacy endpoint will be overall survival; importantly, the FDA has advised us that data on overall survival will not need to be censored for transplant in the primary efficacy analysis, meaning that patients who proceed to transplant will continue to be included as part of the survival analysis.

 

All patients will be treated with standard chemotherapy of either MEC (mitoxantrone, etoposide and cytarabine) or FAI (fludarabine, cytarabine and idarubicin), with approximately half of the patients randomized to receive uproleselan in addition to chemotherapy. Patients receiving uproleselan will be dosed for one day prior to initiation of chemotherapy, twice a day through the chemotherapy regimen, and then for two days after the end of chemotherapy, which was the same regimen as in the Phase 2 portion of the Phase 1/2 trial. The dose regimen will be fixed, rather than weight-based, which we believe will simplify administration and we will offer up to three cycles of consolidation therapy in both arms of the trial for patients who achieve remission. We believe that multiple cycles of treatment in patients who respond may drive an even deeper response in patients treated with uproleselan. If this is the case, it could lengthen the duration of remission with potential for additional benefit on survival.  Key secondary endpoints of the Phase 3 trial will include the incidence of severe mucositis and remission rate, which will be assessed in a hierarchical fashion to provide supportive data. Enrollment in this pivotal trial began in the fourth quarter of 2018, and we expect to complete enrollment of the trial in the second half of 2021.

 

In May 2018, we signed a CRADA with the NCI. Under the terms of the CRADA, we will collaborate with both the NCI and the Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology to conduct a Phase 2/3 randomized, controlled clinical trial testing the addition of uproleselan to a standard cytarabine/daunorubicin chemotherapy regimen (7&3) in older adults with previously untreated AML who are suitable for intensive chemotherapy. The primary endpoint will be overall survival, which is defined as the time from the date of randomization to death from any cause, with a planned interim analysis based on event-free survival after the first 250 patients have been enrolled in the trial. The full trial is expected to enroll approximately 670 patients. Under the terms of the CRADA, the NCI may also fund additional research,

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including clinical trials involving pediatric patients with AML as well as preclinical experiments and clinical trials evaluating alternative chemotherapy regimens. We will supply uproleselan as well as provide financial support to augment data analysis and monitoring for the Phase 3 program. Enrollment in this trial began in April 2019.

GMI-1359 - Drug Candidate Targeting E-selectin and CXCR4

 

The chemokine CXCR4 has emerged as an important pro-inflammatory cytokine that is involved in cell migration throughout the body. Like E-selectin, tumor cells may also use the CXCR4 cellular pathway, contributing to chemoresistance, metastatic disease and ultimately decreased survival. We have an additional drug candidate, GMI-1359, that simultaneously targets both E-selectin and CXCR4. Since E-selectin and CXCR4 are implicated in keeping cancer cells in the bone marrow, we believe that targeting both E-selectin and CXCR4 with a single compound could improve efficacy in the treatment of cancers that affect the bone marrow, such as hematologic cancers, including AML and multiple myeloma, metastases of certain solid tumors, such as breast and prostate cancer, and primary tumors of the bone such as osteosarcoma, a rare cancer affecting about 900 adolescents a year in the United States, as compared to targeting CXCR4 alone.

 

Leukemic cells and circulating tumor cells derived from adenocarcinomas home to and are retained in the bone marrow via defined sinusoidal vascular gateways that express E-selectin and soluble mediators such as C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12, also known as stem cell-derived factor 1). This homing and retention occurs through an interaction with E-selectin ligands and the chemokine receptor for CXCL12, CXCR4, which is expressed on tumor cells.  Interrupting E-selectin-mediated cell activation, adhesion and homing and CXCR4-mediated homing and cell migration and retention may be synergistic and could have therapeutic benefit in many malignancies with unmet medical need.  We believe the use of an E-selectin/CXCR4 dual antagonist as an adjunct to chemotherapy and possibly immunotherapy could improve response and remission rates, remission duration, and, ultimately, survival, particularly in malignancies where bone involvement is a primary hallmark of cancer growth and metastasis.

In one in vivo mouse model of bone metastatic prostate carcinoma, combining GMI-1359 with docetaxel significantly reduced tumor burden and attenuated bone destruction compared to docetaxel alone.  In two mouse models of primary osteosarcoma, administration of GMI-1359 resulted in inhibition of both tumor growth and spread to the lung.  These results were presented during the 2015 and 2018 meetings of the American Association of Cancer Research, respectively. In both mouse models, GMI-1359 showed single agent activity.

 

GMI-1359 has completed a Phase 1 single-dose escalation trial in healthy volunteers. In this trial, volunteer participants received a single injection of GMI-1359, after which they were evaluated for safety, tolerability, PK and PD. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation trial was conducted at a single site in the United States. GMI-1359 was generally well tolerated in this trial, with no subjects experiencing serious adverse events. We initiated a Phase 1b trial of GMI-1359 in the fourth quarter of 2019 in HR+ breast cancer patients whose tumors have spread to bone, and the first patient was dosed in January 2020. The trial is being conducted at Duke University and will evaluate safety PK and PD markers of biologic activity in these patients. In January 2020, the FDA granted GMI-1359 orphan drug designation and rare pediatric disease designation for the treatment of osteosarcoma. These designations are expected to make GMI-1359 eligible for priority review by the FDA.

 

 

Galectin Inhibitors

Using our glycomimetics platform, we have designed galectin-3 inhibitors that specifically block the binding of galectin-3 to carbohydrate structures.  Galectin-3 is a protein that is known to play critical roles in many pathological processes, including fibrosis, checkpoints in T-cell exhaustion during cancer immunotherapy, chemotherapy resistance and cardiovascular disease.  We plan to continue to optimize these compounds and conduct additional preclinical experiments in 2020 to further characterize the effects of our galectin-3 inhibitors on immune processes and fibrosis.  One such compound, GMI-1757, is a dual antagonist of both E-selectin and galectin-3 and was shown to inhibit thrombus formation in a vena cava model and fibrosis in a corneal neovascularization model.  These results were presented at ASH in 2018.

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Our License Agreement with Pfizer for Rivipansel

In October 2011, we entered into a license agreement with Pfizer, under which we granted Pfizer an exclusive worldwide license to develop and commercialize rivipansel, for all fields and uses. The products licensed under the agreement also include certain backup compounds, along with modifications of and improvements to rivipansel that meet defined chemical properties.  On February 5, 2020, we received written notice from Pfizer of Pfizer’s termination of the license agreement, effective April 5, 2020.

Upon termination, all rights and licenses granted to Pfizer under the license agreement will terminate and Pfizer will return to us the rights to develop and commercialize the products subject to the license agreement, including rivipansel, and will grant us a non-exclusive license to use the intellectual property developed by Pfizer in connection with its development of such products, subject to the terms of the license agreement. We will work with Pfizer to effectuate any necessary transition activities with respect to the license agreement and will be determining what, if any, next steps to take with respect to the rivipansel program after reviewing the Phase 3 data more completely.

Our Collaboration and License Agreement with Apollomics for Uproleselan and GMI-1687

In January 2020, we entered into an exclusive collaboration and license agreement with Apollomics for the development and commercialization of uproleselan and GMI-1687 for all fields and all uses in Greater China.  Apollomics will be responsible for all clinical development and commercialization activities in Greater China. We and Apollomics will also collaborate to advance the preclinical and clinical development of GMI-1687. As part of the agreement, we received an upfront cash payment of $9.0 million and will be eligible to receive potential milestone payments totaling approximately $180.0 million based on the achievement of specified development, regulatory and commercial milestones, as well as tiered royalties ranging from the high single digits to 15% based of net sales. Apollomics will be responsible for all costs related to development, regulatory approvals and commercialization in Greater China for uproleselan and GMI-1687. We retain all rights for both compounds in the rest of the world and have agreed to supply uproleselan and GMI-1687 to Apollomics pursuant to clinical and commercial supply agreements.

We and Apollomics have established a joint development committee to oversee activities under the collaboration and license agreement. The collaboration and license agreement will terminate on a region-by-region basis upon the expiration of the royalty term for each region, unless earlier terminated by either party.  Either party may terminate the collaboration and license agreement upon prior written notice, subject to specified conditions, including uncured material breach, or upon bankruptcy or insolvency of the other party. Apollomics may terminate the collaboration and license agreement upon prior written notice for any reason.

 

Intellectual Property

 

We strive to protect the intellectual property that we believe is important to our business, including seeking and maintaining patent protection intended to cover the composition of matter of our drug candidates and their methods of use. We have issued patents directed to rivipansel and methods of use that are expected to expire between 2023 and 2030. We also have issued patents which cover uproleselan and methods of use that are expected to expire between 2032 and 2033. In addition, we have several pending patent applications covering uproleselan and/or methods of using it, the last expiring of which, if issued, currently would be predicted to expire in 2040. We also have an issued patent which covers GMI-1359 and methods of use that is expected to expire in 2036.  In addition, we have several pending patent applications covering GMI-1359 and/or methods of using it, the last expiring of which, if issued, currently would be predicted to expire in 2040. We also rely on trade secret protection for our confidential and proprietary information and careful monitoring of such information to protect aspects of our business. 

 

Our success will depend significantly on our ability to obtain and maintain patent and other proprietary protection for commercially important inventions and know-how related to our business, defend and enforce our patents, preserve the confidentiality of our trade secrets and operate without infringing the valid and enforceable patents and other proprietary rights of third parties. We also rely on know-how and continuing technological innovation to develop, strengthen and maintain our proprietary position in the field of glycomimetics.

A third party may hold intellectual property, including patent rights that are important or necessary to the development of our drug candidates. It may be necessary for us to use the patented or proprietary technology of third parties to commercialize our drug candidates, in which case we would be required to obtain a license from these third

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parties. If we are not able to obtain such a license, or are not able to obtain such a license on commercially reasonable terms, our business could be materially harmed.

We plan to continue to expand our intellectual property estate by filing patent applications directed to additional glycomimetic compounds and their derivatives, compositions and formulations containing them and methods of using them. Additionally, we will seek patent protection in the United States and internationally for novel compositions of matter covering the compounds and their use in a variety of therapies.

The patent positions of biotechnology companies like us are generally uncertain and involve complex legal, scientific and factual questions. In addition, the coverage claimed in a patent application can be significantly reduced before the patent is issued, and its scope can be reinterpreted after issuance, including where a reissue application is filed in relation to an issued patent to correct issues or errors arising during prosecution that may render claims of the issued patent either wholly or partially invalid or unenforceable. Consequently, we do not know whether any of our drug candidates will be protectable or remain protected by enforceable patents. We cannot predict whether the patent applications we are currently pursuing will issue as patents in any particular jurisdiction or whether the claims of any issued patents will provide sufficient proprietary protection from competitors. Any patents that we hold may be challenged, circumvented or invalidated by third parties.

Because patent applications in the United States and certain other jurisdictions are maintained in secrecy for 18 months, and since publication of discoveries in the scientific or patent literature often lags behind actual discoveries, we cannot be certain of the priority of inventions covered by pending patent applications. Moreover, we may have to participate in interference proceedings declared by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, or USPTO, or a foreign patent office to determine priority of invention or in post-grant challenge proceedings, such as oppositions, that challenge priority of invention or other features of patentability. Such proceedings could result in substantial cost, even if the eventual outcome is favorable to us.

Manufacturing

We do not have any manufacturing facilities or personnel. We currently rely, and expect to continue to rely, on third parties for the manufacturing of our drug candidates for preclinical and clinical testing, as well as for commercial manufacturing if our drug candidates receive marketing approval. In the case of rivipansel, the initial process development, manufacturing and scale-up was managed by us and performed under contract by third parties. Under our license agreement with Pfizer, responsibility for manufacturing rivipansel transferred to Pfizer at the time of execution of that agreement, and will remain with Pfizer until the first anniversary of the termination of the license agreement. With respect to our other drug candidates, we anticipate continuing to manage process development, scale-up and manufacturing under contracts with third parties. For uproleselan, we expect a significant increase in manufacturing as we prepare for potential regulatory filings for marketing approval.

All of our drug candidates are small molecules and are manufactured in reliable and reproducible synthetic processes from readily available starting materials. The chemistry does not require unusual equipment in the manufacturing process. We expect to continue to develop drug candidates that can be produced cost-effectively at contract manufacturing facilities.

Commercialization

We have not yet established a sales, marketing or drug distribution infrastructure. We generally expect to retain commercial rights in the United States for our current drug candidates, all of which are still in preclinical or clinical development. We believe that it will be possible for us to access the U.S. market for those drug candidates through a focused, specialized sales force. With respect to uproleselan and GMI-1687, we have granted Apollomics exclusive commercialization rights in Greater China, and we may grant similar rights to third parties for our drug candidates in other jurisdictions around the world.

Subject to receiving marketing approvals, we expect to commence commercialization activities by building a focused sales and marketing organization in the United States to sell our drugs. We believe that such an organization will be able to target the community of physicians who are the key specialists in treating the patient populations for which our

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drug candidates are being developed. Outside the United States, we expect to enter into distribution and other marketing arrangements with third parties for any of our drug candidates that obtain marketing approval.

We also plan to build a marketing and sales management organization to create and implement marketing strategies for any drugs that we market through our own sales organization and to oversee and support our sales force. The responsibilities of the marketing organization would include developing educational initiatives with respect to approved drugs and establishing relationships with thought leaders in relevant fields of medicine.

Competition

We have not yet established a sales, marketing or drug distribution infrastructure. We generally expect to retain commercial rights in the United States for our current drug candidates, all of which are still in preclinical or clinical development. We believe that it will be possible for us to access the U.S. market for those drug candidates through a focused, specialized sales force. With respect to uproleselan and GMI-1687, we have granted Apollomics exclusive commercialization rights in Greater China, and we may grant similar rights to third parties for our drug candidates in other jurisdictions around the world.

 

The key competitive factors affecting the success of all of our drug candidates, if approved, are likely to be their safety, efficacy, convenience, price, the level of generic competition and the availability of coverage and reimbursement from government and other third-party payors. 

 

As the treatment landscape for AML changes, there is substantial risk that uproleselan might not provide additional benefit over other existing therapies. A key consideration in the treatment of relapsed/refractory AML patients is the patient’s suitability for intensive salvage chemotherapy.  The patient population being studied in our ongoing Phase 3 clinical trial of uproleselan includes AML patients deemed able to tolerate salvage chemotherapy.  While there is no commonly accepted single standard approach for salvage chemotherapy, existing options for the treatment of relapsed/refractory AML patients who can tolerate salvage chemotherapy include cytarabine-based combinations.  In addition, we are aware of several other product candidates that are commercially available or are in development as potential treatment options for AML patients. Some of the patient populations being studied for these product candidates in development overlap with the patient population being studied in our Phase 3 clinical trial of uproleselan.  The existence of established treatment options and the development of competing therapies for relapsed/refractory AML patients could negatively impact our ability to successfully commercialize uproleselan.  

 

The following therapies have been recently approved by the FDA for the treatment of AML:

 

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RYDAPT® (midostaurin), an oral prescription medicine commercialized by Novartis to be used in combination with certain chemotherapy medicines to treat adults with newly diagnosed AML who have a defect in a gene called FLT3;

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IDHIFA® (enasidenib), a prescription medicine commercialized by Celgene intended to treat people with AML with an isocitrate dehydrogenase-2 (IDH2) mutation whose disease has come back or has not improved after previous treatments;

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VYXEOSTM (daunorubicin and cytarabine), commercialized by Jazz Pharmaceuticals, which is indicated for the treatment of adults with newly-diagnosed therapy-related AML (t-AML) or AML with myelodysplasia-related changes (AML-MRC);

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MYLOTARGTM  (gemtuzumab ozogamicin), commercialized by Pfizer, which is indicated for the treatment for the treatment of newly-diagnosed CD33-positive AML in adults (in combination with daunorubicin and cytarabine) and for treatment of relapsed or refractory CD33-positive AML in adults and in pediatric patients of 2 years and older as a stand-alone treatment;

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TIBSOVO® (ivosidenib), a prescription medicine commercialized by Agios intended to treat people with AML with an isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (IDH1) mutation whose disease has come back or has not improved after previous treatments;

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XOSPATA® (gilteritinib), an oral prescription medicine commercialized by Astellas intended to treat people with AML with a FLT3 gene mutation whose disease has come back or has not improved after previous treatments;

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·

DAURISMO (glasdigib), an oral prescription medicine commercialized by Pfizer to be used in combination with low-dose cytarabine, for the treatment of newly-diagnosed AML in adult patients who are ≥75 years old or who have comorbidities that preclude use of intensive induction chemotherapy; and

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VENCLEXTA® (venetoclax), an oral prescription medicine commercialized by Abbvie/Genentech to be used in combination with azacitidine, or decitabine, or low-dose cytarabine to treat adults with newly-diagnosed AML who are either 75 years of age or older, or have other medical conditions that prevent the use of standard chemotherapy.

 

While many chemotherapies in development for hematologic malignancies will likely be complementary to uproleselan, there are also therapies in development that could be directly competitive with uproleselan. In particular, there are a number of CXCR4 antagonists in clinical development that target the bone marrow microenvironment in order to mobilize and sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapy, including candidates developed by Sanofi-Aventis (Mozobil), Bristol Myers Squibb (BMS-936564), NOXXON Pharma (NOX-A12), Eli Lilly (LY2510924) and BioLine RX (BL-8040).

Many of the companies against which we are competing, or against which we may compete in the future, have significantly greater financial resources and expertise in research and development, manufacturing, preclinical testing, conducting clinical trials, obtaining regulatory approvals and marketing approved drugs than we do. Mergers and acquisitions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries may result in even more resources being concentrated among a smaller number of our competitors. Smaller or early stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large and established companies. These competitors also compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified scientific and management personnel and establishing clinical trial sites and patient registration for clinical trials, as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our programs.

Government Regulation and Product Approval

Government authorities in the United States, at the federal, state and local levels, and in other countries, extensively regulate, among other things, the research, development, testing, manufacture, packaging, storage, recordkeeping, labeling, advertising, promotion, distribution, marketing, import and export of pharmaceutical products, such as those we are developing. The processes for obtaining regulatory approvals in the United States and in foreign countries, along with subsequent compliance with applicable statutes and regulations, require the expenditure of substantial time and financial resources.

United States Government Regulation

In the United States, the FDA regulates drugs under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, or FDCA, and its implementing regulations. The process of obtaining regulatory approvals and the subsequent compliance with appropriate federal, state, local and foreign statutes and regulations requires the expenditure of substantial time and financial resources. Failure to comply with the applicable United States requirements at any time during the drug development process, approval process or after approval, may subject an applicant to a variety of administrative or judicial sanctions, such as the FDA’s refusal to approve pending new drug applications, or NDAs, withdrawal of an approval, imposition of a clinical hold, issuance of warning or untitled letters, product recalls, product seizures, total or partial suspension of production or distribution, injunctions, fines, refusals of government contracts, restitution, disgorgement or civil or criminal penalties.

The process required by the FDA before a drug may be marketed in the United States generally involves:

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completion of preclinical laboratory tests, animal studies and formulation studies in compliance with the FDA’s good laboratory practice, or GLP, regulations;

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submission to the FDA of an IND, which must become effective before human clinical trials may begin;

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approval by an independent institutional review board, or IRB, at each clinical site before each trial may be initiated;

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·

performance of human clinical trials, including adequate and well-controlled clinical trials, in accordance with good clinical practices, or GCP, to establish the safety and efficacy of the proposed drug for each indication;

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submission to the FDA of an NDA;

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satisfactory completion of an FDA advisory committee review, if applicable;

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satisfactory completion of an FDA inspection of the manufacturing facility or facilities at which the product is produced to assess compliance with current good manufacturing practices, or cGMP, and to assure that the facilities, methods and controls are adequate to preserve the drug’s identity, strength, quality and purity, as well as satisfactory completion of an FDA inspection of selected clinical sites to determine GCP compliance; and

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FDA review and approval of the NDA.

Preclinical Studies

Preclinical studies include laboratory evaluation of product chemistry, toxicity and formulation, as well as animal studies to assess potential safety and efficacy. An IND sponsor must submit the results of the preclinical studies, together with manufacturing information, analytical data and any available clinical data or literature, among other things, to the FDA as part of an IND. Some preclinical testing may continue even after the IND is submitted. An IND automatically becomes effective 30 days after receipt by the FDA, unless before that time the FDA raises concerns or questions related to one or more proposed clinical trials and places the clinical trial on a clinical hold. In such a case, the IND sponsor and the FDA must resolve any outstanding concerns before the clinical trial can begin. As a result, submission of an IND may not result in the FDA allowing clinical trials to commence.

Clinical Trials

Clinical trials involve the administration of the investigational new drug to human subjects under the supervision of qualified investigators in accordance with GCP requirements, which include the requirement that all research subjects provide their informed consent in writing for their participation in any clinical trial. Clinical trials are conducted under protocols detailing, among other things, the objectives of the trial, the parameters to be used in monitoring safety and the effectiveness criteria to be evaluated. A protocol for each clinical trial and any subsequent protocol amendments must be submitted to the FDA as part of the IND. In addition, an IRB at each institution participating in the clinical trial must review and approve the plan for any clinical trial before it commences at that institution, and the IRB must continue to oversee the clinical trial while it is being conducted. Information about certain clinical trials must be submitted within specific timeframes to the National Institutes of Health, or NIH, for public dissemination on their ClinicalTrials.gov website.

Human clinical trials are typically conducted in three sequential phases, which may overlap or be combined. In Phase 1, the drug is initially introduced into healthy human subjects or patients with the target disease or condition and tested for safety, dosage tolerance, absorption, metabolism, distribution, excretion and, if possible, to gain an initial indication of its effectiveness. In Phase 2, the drug typically is administered to a limited patient population to identify possible adverse effects and safety risks, to preliminarily evaluate the efficacy of the product for specific targeted diseases and to determine dosage tolerance and optimal dosage. In Phase 3, the drug is administered to an expanded patient population, generally at geographically dispersed clinical trial sites, in well-controlled clinical trials to generate enough data to statistically evaluate the safety and efficacy of the product for approval, to establish the overall risk-benefit profile of the product and to provide adequate information for the labeling of the product.

Progress reports detailing the results of the clinical trials must be submitted, at least annually, to the FDA, and more frequently if serious adverse events occur. Phase 1, Phase 2 and Phase 3 clinical trials may not be completed successfully within any specified period, or at all. Furthermore, the FDA or the sponsor may suspend or terminate a clinical trial at any time on various grounds, including a finding that the research subjects are being exposed to an unacceptable health risk. Similarly, an IRB can suspend or terminate approval of a clinical trial at its institution if the clinical trial is not being conducted in accordance with the IRB’s requirements, or if the drug has been associated with unexpected serious harm to patients.

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A sponsor may request a Special Protocol Assessment, or SPA, the purpose of which is to reach agreement with the FDA on the Phase 3 clinical trial protocol design and analysis that will form the primary basis of an efficacy claim. According to the FDA’s published guidance on the SPA process, a sponsor that meets the prerequisites may make a specific request for an SPA and provide information regarding the design and size of the proposed clinical trial. The FDA is supposed to evaluate the protocol within 45 days of the request to assess whether the protocol design and planned analysis of the trial are acceptable to support regulatory approval of the product candidate with respect to effectiveness of the indication studied, and that evaluation may result in discussions and a request for additional information. An SPA request must be made before the proposed trial begins, and all open issues must be resolved before the trial begins for an SPA to be approved. If a written agreement is reached, it will be documented in an SPA letter or the minutes of a meeting between the sponsor and the FDA and made part of the administrative record.

 

Even if the FDA agrees to the design, execution and analyses proposed in protocols reviewed under the SPA process, the FDA may revoke or alter its agreement under the following circumstances:

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public health concerns emerge that were unrecognized at the time of the protocol assessment, or the director of the review division determines that a substantial scientific issue essential to determining safety or efficacy has been identified after testing has begun;

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a sponsor fails to follow a protocol that was agreed upon with the FDA; or

·

the relevant data, assumptions, or information provided by the sponsor in a request for SPA change are found to be false statements or misstatements, or are found to omit relevant facts.

A documented SPA may be modified, and such modification will be deemed binding on the FDA review division, except under the circumstances described above, if the FDA and the sponsor agree in writing to modify the protocol and such modification is intended to improve the study. An SPA, however, does not guarantee that a trial will be successful.

Marketing Approval

Assuming successful completion of the required clinical testing, the results of the preclinical and clinical studies, together with detailed information relating to the product’s chemistry, manufacture, controls and proposed labeling, among other things, are submitted to the FDA as part of an NDA requesting approval to market the product for one or more indications. In most cases, the submission of an NDA is subject to a substantial application user fee. Under the Prescription Drug User Fee Act, or PDUFA, guidelines that are currently in effect, the FDA has agreed to certain performance goals regarding the timing of its review of an application.

In addition, under the Pediatric Research Equity Act, an NDA or supplement to an NDA must contain data that are adequate to assess the safety and effectiveness of the drug for the claimed indications in all relevant pediatric subpopulations, and to support dosing and administration for each pediatric subpopulation for which the product is safe and effective. The FDA may, on its own initiative or at the request of the applicant, grant deferrals for submission of some or all pediatric data until after approval of the product for use in adults, or full or partial waivers from the pediatric data requirements. Unless otherwise required by regulation, the pediatric data requirements do not apply to products with orphan designation.

The FDA also may require submission of a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy, or REMS, plan to mitigate any identified or suspected serious risks. The REMS plan could include medication guides, physician communication plans, assessment plans and elements to assure safe use, such as restricted distribution methods, patient registries or other risk minimization tools.

The FDA conducts a preliminary review of all NDAs within the first 60 days after submission, before accepting them for filing, to determine whether they are sufficiently complete to permit substantive review. The FDA may request additional information rather than accept an NDA for filing. In this event, the application must be resubmitted with the additional information. The resubmitted application is also subject to review before the FDA accepts it for filing. Once the submission is accepted for filing, the FDA begins an in-depth substantive review. The FDA reviews an NDA to determine, among other things, whether the drug is safe and effective and whether the facility in which it is manufactured, processed, packaged or held meets standards designed to assure the product’s continued safety, quality and purity.

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The FDA typically refers questions regarding novel drugs to an external advisory committee. An advisory committee is a panel of independent experts, including clinicians and other scientific experts, that reviews, evaluates and provides a recommendation as to whether the application should be approved and under what conditions. The FDA is not bound by the recommendations of an advisory committee, but it considers such recommendations carefully when making decisions.

Before approving an NDA, the FDA typically will inspect the facility or facilities where the product is manufactured. The FDA will not approve an application unless it determines that the manufacturing processes and facilities are in compliance with cGMP requirements and adequate to assure consistent production of the product within required specifications. Additionally, before approving an NDA, the FDA will typically inspect one or more clinical trial sites to assure compliance with GCP.

The testing and approval process for an NDA requires substantial time, effort and financial resources, and could take several years to complete. Data obtained from preclinical and clinical testing are not always conclusive and may be susceptible to varying interpretations, which could delay, limit or prevent regulatory approval. The FDA may not grant approval of an NDA on a timely basis, or at all.

After evaluating the NDA and all related information, including the advisory committee recommendation, if any, and inspection reports regarding the manufacturing facilities and clinical trial sites, the FDA may issue an approval letter, or, in some cases, a complete response letter. A complete response letter generally contains a statement of specific conditions that must be met in order to secure final approval of the NDA and may require additional clinical or preclinical testing in order for the FDA to reconsider the application. Even with submission of this additional information, the FDA ultimately may decide that the application does not satisfy the regulatory criteria for approval. If and when those conditions have been met to the FDA’s satisfaction, the FDA will typically issue an approval letter. An approval letter authorizes commercial marketing of the drug with specific prescribing information for specific indications.

Special FDA Expedited Review and Approval Programs

The FDA has various programs, including fast track designation, accelerated approval, priority review, and breakthrough therapy designation, which are intended to expedite or simplify the process for the development and the FDA review of drugs that are intended for the treatment of serious or life threatening diseases or conditions and demonstrate the potential to address unmet medical needs. The purpose of these programs is to provide important new drugs to patients earlier than under standard FDA review procedures.

To be eligible for a fast track designation, the FDA must determine, based on the request of a sponsor, that a product is intended to treat a serious or life-threatening disease or condition and demonstrates the potential to address an unmet medical need. The FDA will determine that a product will fill an unmet medical need if it will provide a therapy where none exists or provide a therapy that may be potentially superior to existing therapy based on efficacy or safety factors. The FDA may review sections of the NDA for a fast track product on a rolling basis before the complete application is submitted, if the sponsor provides a schedule for the submission of the sections of the NDA, the FDA agrees to accept sections of the NDA and determines that the schedule is acceptable, and the sponsor pays any required user fees upon submission of the first section of the NDA.

The FDA may give a priority review designation to drugs that offer major advances in treatment, or provide a treatment where no adequate therapy exists. A priority review means that the goal for the FDA to review an application is six months, rather than the standard review of ten months under current PDUFA guidelines. These six and ten month review periods are measured from the “filing” date rather than the receipt date for NDAs for new molecular entities, which typically adds approximately two months to the timeline for review and decision from the date of submission. Most products that are eligible for fast track designation are also likely to be considered appropriate to receive a priority review.

In addition, products studied for their safety and effectiveness in treating serious or life-threatening illnesses and that provide meaningful therapeutic benefit over existing treatments may be eligible for accelerated approval and may be approved on the basis of adequate and well-controlled clinical trials establishing that the drug product has an effect on a

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surrogate endpoint that is reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit, or on a clinical endpoint that can be measured earlier than irreversible morbidity or mortality, that is reasonably likely to predict an effect on irreversible morbidity or mortality or other clinical benefit, taking into account the severity, rarity or prevalence of the condition and the availability or lack of alternative treatments. As a condition of approval, the FDA may require a sponsor of a drug receiving accelerated approval to perform post-marketing studies to verify and describe the predicted effect on irreversible morbidity or mortality or other clinical endpoint, and the drug may be subject to accelerated withdrawal procedures.

A sponsor can also request designation of a product candidate as a “breakthrough therapy.” A breakthrough therapy is defined as a drug that is intended, alone or in combination with one or more other drugs, to treat a serious or life-threatening disease or condition, and preliminary clinical evidence indicates that the drug may demonstrate substantial improvement over existing therapies on one or more clinically significant endpoints, such as substantial treatment effects observed early in clinical development. Drugs designated as breakthrough therapies are also eligible for accelerated approval. The FDA must take certain actions, such as holding timely meetings and providing advice, intended to expedite the development and review of an application for approval of a breakthrough therapy.

Even if a product qualifies for one or more of these programs, the FDA may later decide that the product no longer meets the conditions for qualification or decide that the time period for FDA review or approval will not be shortened. We may explore some of these opportunities for our product candidates as appropriate.

Post-Approval Requirements

Drugs manufactured or distributed pursuant to the FDA approvals are subject to pervasive and continuing regulation by the FDA, including, among other things, requirements relating to recordkeeping, periodic reporting, product sampling and distribution, advertising and promotion and reporting of adverse experiences with the product. After approval, most changes to the approved product, such as adding new indications, manufacturing changes or other labeling claims, are subject to further testing requirements and prior FDA review and approval. There also are continuing annual user fee requirements for any marketed products, as well as application fees for supplemental applications with clinical data.

Even if the FDA approves a product, it may limit the approved indications for use of the product, require that contraindications, warnings or precautions be included in the product labeling, including a boxed warning, require that post-approval studies, including Phase 4 clinical trials, be conducted to further assess a drug’s safety after approval, require testing and surveillance programs to monitor the product after commercialization, or impose other conditions, including distribution restrictions or other risk management mechanisms under a REMS, which can materially affect the potential market and profitability of the product. The FDA may prevent or limit further marketing of a product based on the results of post-marketing studies or surveillance programs.

In addition, drug manufacturers and other entities involved in the manufacture and distribution of approved drugs are required to register their establishments with the FDA and state agencies, and are subject to periodic unannounced inspections by the FDA and these state agencies for compliance with cGMP requirements. Changes to the manufacturing process are strictly regulated and often require prior FDA approval before being implemented. FDA regulations also require investigation and correction of any deviations from cGMP and impose reporting and documentation requirements upon the sponsor and any third-party manufacturers that the sponsor may decide to use. Accordingly, manufacturers must continue to expend time, money and effort in the area of production and quality control to maintain cGMP compliance.

 

Once an approval is granted, the FDA may withdraw the approval if compliance with regulatory requirements and standards is not maintained or if problems occur after the product reaches the market.

Later discovery of previously unknown problems with a product, including adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency, or with manufacturing processes, or failure to comply with regulatory requirements, may result in mandatory revisions to the approved labeling to add new safety information; imposition of post-market studies or clinical

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trials to assess new safety risks; or imposition of distribution or other restrictions under a REMS program. Other potential consequences include, among other things:

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restrictions on the marketing or manufacturing of the product, complete withdrawal of the product from the market or product recalls;

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fines, warning letters or holds on post-approval clinical trials;

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refusal of the FDA to approve pending NDAs or supplements to approved NDAs, or suspension or revocation of product license approvals;

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product seizure or detention, or refusal to permit the import or export of products; or

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injunctions or the imposition of civil or criminal penalties.

The FDA strictly regulates marketing, labeling, advertising and promotion of products that are placed on the market. Although physicians, in the practice of medicine, may prescribe approved drugs for unapproved indications, pharmaceutical companies generally are required to promote their drug products only for the approved indications and in accordance with the provisions of the approved label. The FDA and other agencies actively enforce the laws and regulations prohibiting the promotion of off-label uses, and a company that is found to have improperly promoted off-label uses may be subject to significant liability. However, physicians may, in their independent medical judgment, prescribe legally available products for off-label uses. The FDA does not regulate the behavior of physicians in their choice of treatments but the FDA does restrict manufacturer’s communications on the subject of off-label use of their products.

In addition, the distribution of prescription pharmaceutical products is subject to the Prescription Drug Marketing Act, or PDMA, which regulates the distribution of drugs and drug samples at the federal level, and sets minimum standards for the registration and regulation of drug distributors by the states. Both the PDMA and state laws limit the distribution of prescription pharmaceutical product samples and impose requirements to ensure accountability in distribution.

Federal and State Fraud and Abuse, Data Privacy and Security, and Transparency Laws and Regulations

In addition to FDA restrictions on marketing of pharmaceutical products, federal and state healthcare laws and regulations restrict business practices in the biopharmaceutical industry. These laws include, but are not limited to, anti-kickback and false claims laws and regulations, data privacy and security, and transparency laws and regulations.

The federal Anti-Kickback Statute prohibits, among other things, knowingly and willfully offering, paying, soliciting or receiving remuneration to induce or in return for purchasing, leasing, ordering or arranging for or recommending the purchase, lease or order of any item or service reimbursable under Medicare, Medicaid or other federal healthcare programs. The term “remuneration” has been broadly interpreted to include anything of value. The Anti-Kickback Statute has been interpreted to apply to arrangements between pharmaceutical manufacturers on one hand and prescribers, purchasers and formulary managers on the other. Although there are a number of statutory exemptions and regulatory safe harbors protecting some common activities from prosecution, the exemptions and safe harbors are drawn narrowly and require strict compliance in order to offer protection. Practices that involve remuneration that may be alleged to be intended to induce prescribing, purchases or recommendations may be subject to scrutiny if they do not qualify for an exemption or safe harbor. Several courts have interpreted the statute’s intent requirement to mean that if any one purpose of an arrangement involving remuneration is to induce referrals of federal healthcare covered business, the statute has been violated.

The reach of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute was also broadened by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, or collectively PPACA, which, among other things, amended the intent requirement of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute such that a person or entity no longer needs to have actual knowledge of this statute or specific intent to violate it in order to have committed a violation. In addition, PPACA provides that the government may assert that a claim including items or services resulting from a violation of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the federal civil False Claims Act or the civil monetary penalties statute, which imposes penalties against any person or entity who

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is determined to have presented or caused to be presented a claim to a federal health program that the person knows or should know is for an item or service that was not provided as claimed or is false or fraudulent.

Federal false claims laws, including the federal civil False Claims Act, prohibit any person or entity from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, a false claim for payment to the federal government or knowingly making, using or causing to be made or used a false record or statement material to a false or fraudulent claim to the federal government. A claim includes “any request or demand” for money or property presented to the U.S. government. Pharmaceutical and other healthcare companies have been prosecuted under these laws for, among other things, allegedly providing free product to customers with the expectation that the customers would bill federal programs for the product. Companies also have been prosecuted for causing false claims to be submitted because of the companies’ marketing of products for unapproved, and thus non-reimbursable, uses. The federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, created additional federal criminal statutes that prohibit, among other things, knowingly and willfully executing a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program, including private third-party payors and knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up a material fact or making any materially false, fictitious or fraudulent statement in connection with the delivery of or payment for healthcare benefits, items or services. Also, many states have similar fraud and abuse statutes or regulations that apply to items and services reimbursed under Medicaid and other state programs, or, in several states, apply regardless of the payor.

In addition, we may be subject to data privacy and security regulation by both the federal government and the states in which we conduct our business. HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, or HITECH, and their respective implementing regulations, including the Final HIPAA Omnibus Rule published on January 25, 2013, imposes specified requirements on certain types of individuals and entities relating to the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information. Among other things, HITECH makes HIPAA’s security standards directly applicable to “business associates,” defined as independent contractors or agents of covered entities that create, receive, maintain or transmit protected health information in connection with providing a service for or on behalf of a covered entity. HITECH also increased the civil and criminal penalties that may be imposed against covered entities, business associates and possibly other persons, and gave state attorneys general new authority to file civil actions for damages or injunctions in federal courts to enforce the federal HIPAA laws and seek attorney’s fees and costs associated with pursuing federal civil actions. In addition, state laws govern the privacy and security of health information in certain circumstances, many of which are not pre-empted by HIPAA, differ from each other in significant ways and may not have the same effect, thus complicating compliance efforts.

The federal Physician Payments Sunshine Act requires certain manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies for which payment is available under Medicare, Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program, with specific exceptions, to report annually to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, or CMS, information related to payments or other transfers of value made to physicians, as defined by such law, and teaching hospitals, and applicable manufacturers and applicable group purchasing organizations to report annually to CMS ownership and investment interests held by the physicians and their immediate family members.

We may also be subject to state laws that require pharmaceutical companies to comply with the pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government, as well as state laws that require drug manufacturers to report information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians and other healthcare providers or marketing expenditures.

Because of the breadth of these laws and the narrowness of available statutory and regulatory exemptions, it is possible that some of our business activities could be subject to challenge under one or more of such laws. If our operations are found to be in violation of any of the federal and state laws described above or any other governmental regulations that apply to us, we may be subject to penalties, including administrative, criminal and significant civil monetary penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, imprisonment, additional reporting requirements and oversight if we become subject to a corporate integrity agreement or similar agreement to resolve allegations of non-compliance with these laws, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings, disgorgement, exclusion from participation in government healthcare programs and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our results of operations. To the extent that any of our products are sold in a foreign country, we may be subject to similar foreign laws and regulations, which may include, for instance, applicable post-marketing requirements, including safety surveillance, anti-fraud and abuse laws and

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implementation of corporate compliance programs and reporting of payments or transfers of value to healthcare professionals.

Coverage and Reimbursement

The future commercial success of our drug candidates or any of our collaborators’ ability to commercialize any approved drug candidates successfully will depend in part on the extent to which governmental payor programs at the federal and state levels, including Medicare and Medicaid, private health insurers and other third-party payors provide coverage for and establish adequate reimbursement levels for our drug candidates. Government health administration authorities, private health insurers and other organizations generally decide which drugs they will pay for and establish reimbursement levels for healthcare. In particular, in the United States, private health insurers and other third-party payors often provide reimbursement for products and services based on the level at which the government, through the Medicare or Medicaid programs, provides reimbursement for such treatments. In the United States, the EU and other potentially significant markets for our drug candidates, government authorities and third party payors are increasingly attempting to limit or regulate the price of medical products and services, particularly for new and innovative products and therapies, which often has resulted in average selling prices lower than they would otherwise be. Further, the increased emphasis on managed healthcare in the United States and on country and regional pricing and reimbursement controls in the EU will put additional pressure on product pricing, reimbursement and usage, which may adversely affect our future product sales and results of operations. These pressures can arise from rules and practices of managed care groups, judicial decisions and laws and regulations related to Medicare, Medicaid and healthcare reform, pharmaceutical coverage and reimbursement policies and pricing in general.

Third-party payors are increasingly imposing additional requirements and restrictions on coverage and limiting reimbursement levels for medical products. For example, federal and state governments reimburse covered prescription drugs at varying rates generally below average wholesale price. These restrictions and limitations influence the purchase of healthcare services and products. Third-party payors may limit coverage to specific drug products on an approved list, or formulary, which might not include all of the FDA-approved drug products for a particular indication. Third-party payors are increasingly challenging the price and examining the medical necessity and cost-effectiveness of medical products and services, in addition to their safety and efficacy. We may need to conduct expensive pharmacoeconomic studies in order to demonstrate the medical necessity and cost-effectiveness of our products, in addition to the costs required to obtain the FDA approvals. Our drug candidates may not be considered medically necessary or cost-effective. A payor’s decision to provide coverage for a drug product does not imply that an adequate reimbursement rate will be approved. Further, one payor’s determination to provide coverage for a drug product does not assure that other payors will also provide coverage for the drug product. Adequate third-party reimbursement may not be available to enable us to maintain price levels sufficient to realize an appropriate return on our investment in drug development. Legislative proposals to reform healthcare or reduce costs under government insurance programs may result in lower reimbursement for our drugs and drug candidates or exclusion of our drugs and drug candidates from coverage. The cost containment measures that healthcare payors and providers are instituting and any healthcare reform could significantly reduce our revenues from the sale of any approved drug candidates. We cannot provide any assurances that we will be able to obtain and maintain third party coverage or adequate reimbursement for our drug candidates in whole or in part.

Impact of Healthcare Reform on our Business

The United States and some foreign jurisdictions are considering enacting or have enacted a number of additional legislative and regulatory proposals to change the healthcare system in ways that could affect our ability to sell our products profitably. Among policy makers and payors in the United States and elsewhere, there is significant interest in promoting changes in healthcare systems with the stated goals of containing healthcare costs, improving quality and expanding access. In the United States, the pharmaceutical industry has been a particular focus of these efforts, which include major legislative initiatives to reduce the cost of care through changes in the healthcare system, including limits on the pricing, coverage, and reimbursement of pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical products, especially under government-funded health care programs, and increased governmental control of drug pricing.  

There have been several U.S. government initiatives over the past few years to fund and incentivize certain comparative effectiveness research, including creation of the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute under PPACA. Although the results of the comparative effectiveness studies are not intended to mandate coverage policies for public or private payors, it is not clear what effect, if any, the research will have on the sales of any product, if any such

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product or the condition that it is intended to treat is the subject of a study. It is also possible that comparative effectiveness research demonstrating benefits in a competitor’s product could adversely affect the sales of our product candidates. If third-party payors do not consider our drug candidates to be cost-effective compared to other available therapies, they may not cover our drug candidates, once approved, as a benefit under their plans or, if they do, the level of payment may not be sufficient to allow us to sell our drugs on a profitable basis. PPACA became law in March 2010 and substantially changed the way healthcare is financed by both governmental and private insurers. Among other measures that may have an impact on our business, PPACA established an annual, nondeductible fee on any entity that manufactures or imports specified branded prescription drugs and biologic agents; a new Medicare Part D coverage gap discount program; and a new formula that increases the rebates a manufacturer must pay under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program. Additionally, PPACA extends manufacturers’ Medicaid rebate liability, expands eligibility criteria for Medicaid programs, and expands entities eligible for discounts under the Public Health Service pharmaceutical pricing program.    There remain judicial and Congressional challenges to certain aspects of PPACA, as well as recent efforts by the Trump administration to repeal or replace certain aspects of the PPACA.

Since January 2017, President Trump has signed two Executive Orders designed to delay the implementation of any certain provisions of the PPACA or otherwise circumvent some of the requirements for health insurance mandated by the PPACA. Concurrently, Congress has considered legislation that would repeal or repeal and replace all or part of the PPACA. While Congress has not passed comprehensive repeal legislation, two bills affecting the implementation of certain taxes under the PPACA have been signed into law. The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 includes a provision repealing, effective January 1, 2019, the tax-based shared responsibility payment imposed by the PPACA on certain individuals who fail to maintain qualifying health coverage for all or part of a year that is commonly referred to as the “individual mandate”. In addition, the 2020 federal spending package permanently eliminated, effective January 1, 2020, the PPACA-mandated “Cadillac” tax on high-cost employer-sponsored health coverage and medical device tax and, effective January 1, 2021, also eliminates the health insurer tax. On December 14, 2018, a Texas U.S. District Court Judge ruled that the PPACA is unconstitutional in its entirety because the “individual mandate” was repealed by Congress as part of the Tax Act. Additionally, on December 18, 2019, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 5th Circuit upheld the District Court ruling that the individual mandate was unconstitutional and remanded the case back to the District Court to determine whether the remaining provisions of the PPACA are invalid as well.

In addition, there has been increasing legislative and enforcement interest in the United States with respect to specialty drug pricing practices.  Specifically, there have been several recent U.S. Congressional inquiries and proposed federal and proposed and enacted state legislation designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to drug pricing, review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs, and reform government program reimbursement methodologies for drugs. At the federal level, the Trump administration’s budget proposal for fiscal year 2020 contained further drug price control measures that could be enacted during the budget process or in other future legislation, including, for example, measures to permit Medicare Part D plans to negotiate the price of certain drugs under Medicare Part B, to allow some states to negotiate drug prices under Medicaid, and to eliminate cost sharing for generic drugs for low-income patients. Further, the Trump administration released a “Blueprint” to lower drug prices and reduce out of pocket costs of drugs that contains additional proposals to increase drug manufacturer competition, increase the negotiating power of certain federal healthcare programs, incentivize manufacturers to lower the list price of their products, and reduce the out of pocket costs of drug products paid by consumers. The Department of Health and Human Services, or HHS, has solicited feedback on some of these measures and has implemented others under its existing authority. While some of these and other measures may require additional authorization to become effective,  Congress and the Trump administration have each indicated that it will continue to seek new legislative and/or administrative measures to control drug costs. At the state level, legislatures are increasingly passing legislation and implementing regulations designed to control pharmaceutical and biological product pricing, including price or patient reimbursement constraints, discounts, restrictions on certain product access and marketing cost disclosure and transparency measures, and, in some cases, designed to encourage importation from other countries and bulk purchasing.

As a result of PPACA, Medicare payments are increasingly tied to quality of care and value measures, and reporting of related data by providers such as physicians and hospitals. So called “value based reimbursement” measures may present challenges as well as potential opportunities for biopharmaceutical manufacturers. Medicare incentives for providers meeting certain quality measures may ultimately prove beneficial for manufacturers that are able to establish that their products may help providers to meet such measures. However, manufacturers’ ability to market their drug products based on quality or value is highly regulated and not always permissible. In addition, the potentially decreased Medicare reimbursement to those providers that fail to adequately comply with quality reporting requirements could

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translate to decreased resources available to purchase products and may negatively impact marketing or utilization of our drug candidates if they are approved for marketing. We cannot predict at this time what impact, if any, the longer-term shift towards value based reimbursement will have on any of our drug candidates in either the Medicare program, or in any other third party payor programs that may similarly tie payment to provider quality.

In addition, other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted since PPACA was enacted. In August 2011, the President signed into law the Budget Control Act of 2011, as amended, which, among other things, created the Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction to recommend proposals in spending reductions to Congress. The Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction did not achieve its targeted deficit reduction of at least $1.2 trillion for the years 2013 through 2021, triggering the legislation’s automatic reductions to several government programs. These reductions include aggregate reductions to Medicare payments to providers of up to 2% per fiscal year, which began in 2013 and, following passage of the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015, will continue through 2029 unless additional Congressional action is taken. In January 2013, President Obama signed into law the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, which, among other things, reduced Medicare payments to several providers and increased the statute of limitations period for the government to recover overpayments to providers from three to five years. These and other healthcare reform initiatives may result in additional reductions in Medicare and other healthcare funding.

Exclusivity and Approval of Competing Products

Hatch-Waxman Patent Listing

In seeking approval for a drug through an NDA, applicants are required to list with the FDA each patent with claims that cover the applicant’s product or a method of using the product. Upon approval of a drug, each of the patents listed in the application for the drug is then published in the FDA’s Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations, commonly known as the Orange Book. Drugs listed in the Orange Book can, in turn, be cited by potential competitors in support of approval of an abbreviated new drug application, or ANDA, or 505(b)(2) NDA. Generally, an ANDA provides for marketing of a drug product that has the same active ingredients in the same strengths, dosage form and route of administration as the listed drug and has been shown to be bioequivalent through in vitro or in vivo testing or otherwise to the listed drug. ANDA applicants are not required to conduct or submit results of preclinical or clinical tests to prove the safety or efficacy of their drug product, other than the requirement for bioequivalence testing. Drugs approved in this way are commonly referred to as “generic equivalents” to the listed drug, and can often be substituted by pharmacists under prescriptions written for the original listed drug. 505(b)(2) NDAs generally are submitted for changes to a previously approved drug product, such as a new dosage form or indication.

The ANDA or 505(b)(2) NDA applicant is required to certify to the FDA concerning any patents listed for the approved product in the FDA’s Orange Book, except for patents covering methods of use for which the ANDA applicant is not seeking approval. Specifically, the applicant must certify with respect to each patent that:

·

the required patent information has not been filed;

·

the listed patent has expired;

·

the listed patent has not expired, but will expire on a particular date and approval is sought after patent expiration; or

·

the listed patent is invalid, unenforceable or will not be infringed by the new product.

Generally, the ANDA or 505(b)(2) NDA cannot be approved until all listed patents have expired, except when the ANDA or 505(b)(2) NDA applicant challenges a listed drug. A certification that the proposed product will not infringe the already approved product’s listed patents or that such patents are invalid or unenforceable is called a Paragraph IV certification. If the applicant does not challenge the listed patents or indicate that it is not seeking approval of a patented method of use, the ANDA or 505(b)(2) NDA application will not be approved until all the listed patents claiming the referenced product have expired.

If the ANDA or 505(b)(2) NDA applicant has provided a Paragraph IV certification to the FDA, the applicant must also send notice of the Paragraph IV certification to the NDA and patent holders once the application has been accepted for filing by the FDA. The NDA and patent holders may then initiate a patent infringement lawsuit in response to the notice of the Paragraph IV certification. The filing of a patent infringement lawsuit within 45 days after the receipt of

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notice of the Paragraph IV certification automatically prevents the FDA from approving the ANDA or 505(b)(2) NDA until the earlier of 30 months, expiration of the patent, settlement of the lawsuit or a decision in the infringement case that is favorable to the ANDA applicant.

Hatch-Waxman Non-Patent Exclusivity

Market and data exclusivity provisions under the FDCA also can delay the submission or the approval of certain applications for competing products. The FDCA provides a five-year period of non-patent data exclusivity within the United States to the first applicant to gain approval of an NDA for a new chemical entity. A drug is a new chemical entity if the FDA has not previously approved any other new drug containing the same active moiety, which is the molecule or ion responsible for the activity of the drug substance. During the exclusivity period, the FDA may not accept for review an ANDA or a 505(b)(2) NDA submitted by another company that contains the previously approved active moiety. However, an ANDA or 505(b)(2) NDA may be submitted after four years if it contains a certification of patent invalidity or noninfringement.

The FDCA also provides three years of marketing exclusivity for an NDA, 505(b)(2) NDA or supplement to an existing NDA or 505(b)(2) NDA if new clinical investigations, other than bioavailability studies, that were conducted or sponsored by the applicant, are deemed by the FDA to be essential to the approval of the application or supplement. Three-year exclusivity may be awarded for changes to a previously approved drug product, such as new indications, dosages, strengths or dosage forms of an existing drug. This three-year exclusivity covers only the conditions of use associated with the new clinical investigations and, as a general matter, does not prohibit the FDA from approving ANDAs or 505(b)(2) NDAs for generic versions of the original, unmodified drug product. Five-year and three-year exclusivity will not delay the submission or approval of a full NDA; however, an applicant submitting a full NDA would be required to conduct or obtain a right of reference to all of the preclinical studies and adequate and well-controlled clinical trials necessary to demonstrate safety and effectiveness.

Orphan Drug Exclusivity

Under the Orphan Drug Act, the FDA may grant orphan designation to a drug or biological product intended to treat a rare disease or condition, which is generally a disease or condition that affects fewer than 200,000 individuals in the United States, or more than 200,000 individuals in the United States and for which there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing and making a drug or biological product available in the United States for this type of disease or condition will be recovered from sales of the product. Orphan designation must be requested before submitting an NDA or biologics license application. Orphan designation does not convey any advantage in or shorten the duration of the regulatory review and approval process. We have received orphan drug designation for rivipansel, uproleselan and GMI-1359, and we intend to seek orphan drug designation and exclusivity for our other drug candidates whenever it is available.

If a product that has orphan designation subsequently receives the first FDA approval for such drug for the disease or condition for which it has such designation, the product is entitled to orphan product exclusivity, which means that the FDA may not approve any other applications to market the same drug or biological product for the same indication for seven years, except in limited circumstances, such as a showing of clinical superiority to the product with orphan exclusivity. Competitors, however, may receive approval of different products for the indication for which the orphan product has exclusivity or obtain approval for the same product but for a different indication for which the orphan product has exclusivity. If a drug or biological product designated as an orphan product receives marketing approval for an indication broader than what is designated, it may not be entitled to orphan product exclusivity. Orphan drug status in the EU has similar, but not identical, benefits.

Pediatric Exclusivity

Pediatric exclusivity is another type of non-patent marketing exclusivity in the United States and, if granted, provides for the attachment of an additional six months of marketing protection to the term of any existing regulatory exclusivity, including the non-patent and orphan drug exclusivity periods described above. This six-month exclusivity may be granted if an NDA sponsor submits pediatric data that fairly respond to a written request from the FDA for such data. The data do not need to show the product to be effective in the pediatric population studied; rather, if the clinical trial is deemed to fairly respond to the FDA’s request, the additional protection is granted. If reports of requested

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pediatric studies are submitted to and accepted by FDA within the statutory time limits, whatever statutory or regulatory periods of exclusivity or Orange Book listed patent protection cover the drug are extended by six months. This is not a patent term extension, but it effectively extends the regulatory period during which the FDA cannot approve an ANDA or 505(b)(2) application owing to regulatory exclusivity or listed patents. If any of our drug candidates is approved, we anticipate seeking pediatric exclusivity when it is appropriate.

Foreign Regulation

In order to market any product outside of the United States, we would need to comply with numerous and varying regulatory requirements of other countries regarding safety and efficacy and governing, among other things, clinical trials, marketing authorization, commercial sales and distribution of our drug candidates. For example, in the EU, we must obtain authorization of a clinical trial application, or CTA, in each member state in which we intend to conduct a clinical trial. Whether or not we obtain FDA approval for a drug, we would need to obtain the necessary approvals by the comparable regulatory authorities of foreign countries before we can commence clinical trials or marketing of the drug in those countries. The approval process varies from country to country and can involve additional product testing and additional administrative review periods. The time required to obtain approval in other countries might differ from and be longer than that required to obtain FDA approval. Regulatory approval in one country does not ensure regulatory approval in another, but a failure or delay in obtaining regulatory approval in one country may negatively impact the regulatory process in others.

Employees

As of December 31, 2019, we had 57 employees, all of whom are full-time and located in the United States. None of our employees is represented by a labor union or covered by a collective bargaining agreement. We consider our relationship with our employees to be good.

Legal Proceedings

We are not currently a party to any material legal proceedings, and we are not aware of any pending or threatened legal proceeding against us that we believe could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results or financial condition.

Customer Concentration and Geographic Information

We did not recognize any revenue during the years ended December 31, 2019 or 2018. All of our long-lived assets are located in the United States.

 

Corporate Information

We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware in April 2003 and commenced operations in May 2003. Our principal executive offices are located at 9708 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, Maryland 20850. Our telephone number is (240) 243-1201.

Available Information

Our internet website address is www.glycomimetics.com. In addition to the information contained in this Annual Report, information about us can be found on our website. Our website and information included in or linked to our website are not part of this Annual Report.

Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, are available free of charge through our website as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC. Additionally the SEC maintains an internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information. The address of the SEC’s website is www.sec.gov. 

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

Our business is subject to numerous risks. You should carefully consider the following risks, as well as general economic and business risks, and all of the other information contained in this Annual Report, together with any other documents we file with the SEC. Any of the following risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition and cause the trading price of our common stock to decline.

Risks Related to Our Financial Position and Capital Needs

We have incurred significant losses since our inception. We expect to continue to incur losses over the next several years and may never achieve or maintain profitability.

Since inception, we have incurred significant operating losses. As of December 31, 2019, we had an accumulated deficit of $258.4 million. In recent years, we have financed our operations with proceeds from registered public offerings of our common stock and milestone payments under our license agreement with Pfizer, which has been terminated effective April 2020. We have not generated any meaningful revenue since our inception other than from upfront and milestone payments from our license and collaboration agreements.

We have devoted substantially all of our financial resources and efforts to research and development, including preclinical studies and clinical trials. We are still in the early stages of development of our drug candidates, and we have not completed development of any drugs. We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and operating losses over the next several years. Our net losses may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter and year to year. We anticipate that our expenses will increase substantially as we:

·

conduct clinical trials of uproleselan in AML;

·

conduct clinical trials of GMI-1359;

·

initiate and conduct clinical trials of GMI-1687;

·

continue the research and development of our other drug candidates;

·

seek to discover and develop additional drug candidates;

·

seek regulatory approvals for any drug candidates that successfully complete clinical trials;

·

ultimately establish a sales, marketing and distribution infrastructure and scale up external manufacturing capabilities to commercialize any drugs for which we may obtain regulatory approval;

·

maintain, expand and protect our intellectual property portfolio;

·

hire additional clinical, quality control, regulatory and scientific personnel;

·

add operational, financial and management information systems and personnel, including personnel to support our drug development and planned future commercialization efforts; and

·

incur legal, accounting and other expenses in operating as a public company.

To become and remain profitable, we must succeed in developing and eventually commercializing drugs that generate significant revenue. This will require us to be successful in a range of challenging activities, including completing preclinical testing and clinical trials of our drug candidates, obtaining regulatory approval for these drug candidates and manufacturing and commercializing any drugs for which we may obtain regulatory approval, as well as discovering additional drug candidates. We are only in the preliminary stages of most of these activities. We may never succeed in these activities and, even if we do, may never generate revenue that is significant enough to achieve profitability.

In the case of uproleselan and GMI-1687, our ability to generate revenue is partially dependent upon the achievement of development, regulatory and commercial milestones and sales sufficient to generate royalties under our license agreement with Apollomics, and the achievement of such milestones is largely out of our control. If Apollomics

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fails, or chooses not to continue, to further develop, to seek regulatory approval for or to commercialize uproleselan in Greater China, our ability to generate revenue with respect to uproleselan may be significantly reduced or eliminated. 

Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with drug development, we are unable to accurately predict the timing or amount of increased expenses or when, or if, we will be able to achieve profitability. If we are required by regulatory authorities to perform studies in addition to those currently expected, or if there are any delays in completing our clinical trials or the development of any of our drug candidates, our expenses could increase.

Even if we do achieve profitability, we may not be able to sustain or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis. Our failure to become and remain profitable would depress the value of our company and could impair our ability to raise capital, expand our business, maintain our research and development efforts or even continue our operations. A decline in the value of our company could also cause result in significant harm to our financial position and adversely affect our stock price.

We will need substantial additional funding to pursue our business objectives. If we are unable to raise capital when needed, we could be forced to delay, reduce or eliminate our drug development programs or potential commercialization efforts.

We believe that our cash and cash equivalents as of December 31, 2019 will enable us to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements into 2022. However, we will need to obtain substantial additional funding in connection with our continuing operations. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including:

·

the scope, progress, results and costs of preclinical development, laboratory testing and clinical trials for our drug candidates, including our ongoing and planned clinical trials of uproleselan, GMI-1359 and GMI-1687;

·

the number and development requirements of other drug candidates that we may pursue;

·

the costs, timing and outcome of regulatory review of our drug candidates;

·

the costs and timing of future commercialization activities, including product manufacturing, marketing, sales and distribution, for any of our drug candidates for which we receive marketing approval;

·

the revenue, if any, received from commercial sales of our drug candidates for which we receive marketing approval;

·

the costs and timing of preparing, filing and prosecuting patent applications, maintaining and enforcing our intellectual property rights and defending any intellectual property-related claims; and

·

the extent to which we acquire or in-license other drug candidates and technologies.

Identifying potential drug candidates and conducting preclinical testing and clinical trials is a time consuming, expensive and uncertain process that takes years to complete, and we or any current or future collaborators may never generate the necessary data or results required to obtain regulatory approval and achieve product sales. In addition, our drug candidates, if approved, may not achieve commercial success. Our commercial revenue, if any, will be derived from the sale of drugs that we do not expect to be commercially available for several years, if at all. Accordingly, we will need to continue to rely on additional financing to achieve our business objectives. Adequate additional financing may not be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. If we are unable to raise capital when needed or on attractive terms, we could be forced to delay, reduce or eliminate our research and development programs or any future commercialization efforts.

Raising additional capital may cause dilution to our stockholders, restrict our operations or require us to relinquish rights to our drug candidates.

Until such time, if ever, as we can generate substantial revenue from the sale of our drugs, we expect to finance our cash needs through a combination of equity offerings, debt financings and license and development agreements. We do not currently have any committed external source of funds other than possible milestone payments and possible royalties under our license agreement with Apollomics. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, your ownership interest will be diluted, and the terms of these securities may include liquidation or other preferences that could adversely affect your rights as a common stockholder. Debt financing and

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preferred equity financing, if available, may involve agreements that include covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures or declaring dividends.

If we raise additional funds through collaborations, strategic alliances or marketing, distribution or licensing arrangements with third parties, we may be required to relinquish valuable rights to our research programs or drug candidates or grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us. If we are unable to raise additional funds through equity or debt financings or other arrangements with third parties when needed, we may be required to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our drug development or future commercialization efforts or grant rights to third parties to develop and market drug candidates that we would otherwise prefer to develop and market ourselves.

Our operating history may make it difficult for you to evaluate the success of our business to date and to assess our future viability.

We commenced operations in 2003, and our operations to date have been largely focused on raising capital, developing our expertise in carbohydrate chemistry and knowledge of carbohydrate biology, identifying potential drug candidates, undertaking preclinical studies and conducting clinical trials. We have two drug candidates in clinical development, but we have not yet demonstrated our ability to successfully complete later stage clinical trials, obtain regulatory approvals, manufacture a commercial scale drug, or arrange for a third party to do so on our behalf, or conduct sales and marketing activities necessary for successful commercialization. 

We may encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications, delays and other known or unknown factors in achieving our business objectives. We will need to transition at some point from a company with a research and development focus to a company capable of supporting commercial activities. We may not be successful in such a transition.

We expect our financial condition and operating results to continue to fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter and year to year due to a variety of factors, many of which are beyond our control. Accordingly, you should not rely upon the results of any quarterly or annual periods as indications of future operating performance

Our ability to use net operating losses to offset future taxable income may be subject to limitations.

As of December 31, 2019, we had federal and state net operating loss carryforwards of $194.0 million, research and development tax credit carryforwards of $9.1 million and $26.1 million of orphan drug tax credit carryforwards. The federal and state net operating loss carryforwards will begin to expire, if not utilized, beginning in 2026, the research and development tax credits in 2023 and the orphan drug tax credit in 2033. These net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards could expire unused and be unavailable to offset future income tax liabilities. Under federal income tax laws, federal net operating losses incurred in 2018 and in future years may be carried forward indefinitely, but the deductibility of such federal net operating losses is limited. In addition, under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, and corresponding provisions of state law, if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change,” which is generally defined as a greater than 50% change, by value, in its equity ownership over a three-year period, the corporation’s ability to use its pre-change net operating loss carryforwards and other pre-change tax attributes to offset its post-change income or taxes may be limited. We could experience ownership changes in the future that would limit our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards.

Risks Related to the Discovery and Development of Our Drug Candidates

Our research and development is focused on discovering and developing novel glycomimetic drugs, and we are taking an innovative approach to discovering and developing drugs, which may never lead to marketable drugs.

A key element of our strategy is to use and expand our platform to build a pipeline of novel glycomimetic drug candidates and progress these drug candidates through clinical development for the treatment of a variety of diseases. The discovery of therapeutic drugs based on molecules that mimic the structure of carbohydrates is an emerging field, and the scientific discoveries that form the basis for our efforts to discover and develop drug candidates are relatively new. The scientific evidence to support the feasibility of developing drug candidates based on these discoveries is both preliminary and limited. Although our research and development efforts to date have resulted in a pipeline of glycomimetic drug candidates, we may not be able to develop drug candidates that are safe and effective. Even if we are

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successful in continuing to build our pipeline, the potential drug candidates that we identify may not be suitable for clinical development, including as a result of being shown to have harmful side effects or other characteristics that indicate that they are unlikely to be drugs that will receive marketing approval and achieve market acceptance. If we do not successfully develop and commercialize drug candidates based upon our glycomimetics platform, we will not be able to obtain product revenue in future periods, which likely would result in significant harm to our financial position and adversely affect our stock price.

We have only two drug candidates that are in clinical trials. All of our other drug candidates are still in preclinical development. If we or our collaborators are unable to commercialize our drug candidates or experience significant delays in doing so, our business will be materially harmed.

Uproleselan and GMI-1359 are our only drug candidates that are in clinical trials. Our other drug candidates are still in preclinical development. We have not completed the development of any drug candidates, we currently generate no revenue from the sale of any drugs and we may never be able to develop a marketable drug. We have invested substantially all of our efforts and financial resources in the development of our glycomimetics platform, the identification of potential drug candidates using that platform and the development of our drug candidates. Our ability to generate revenue from our other drug candidates, which we do not expect to occur for many years, if ever, will depend heavily on their successful development and eventual commercialization. The success of those drug candidates will depend on several factors, including:

·

successful completion of preclinical studies and clinical trials;

·

receipt of marketing approvals from applicable regulatory authorities;

·

obtaining and maintaining patent and trade secret protection and regulatory exclusivity for our drug candidates;

·

making arrangements with third-party manufacturers for, or establishing, commercial manufacturing capabilities;

·

launching commercial sales of the drugs, if and when approved, whether alone or in collaboration with others;

·

acceptance of the drugs, if and when approved, by patients, the medical community and third-party payors;

·

effectively competing with other therapies;

·

obtaining and maintaining healthcare coverage and adequate reimbursement;

·

protecting our rights in our intellectual property portfolio; and

·

maintaining a continued acceptable safety profile of the drugs following approval.

If we do not achieve one or more of these factors in a timely manner or at all, we could experience significant delays or an inability to successfully commercialize our drug candidates, which would materially harm our business.

Clinical drug development involves a lengthy and expensive process, with an uncertain outcome. We may incur additional costs or experience delays in completing, or ultimately be unable to complete, the development and commercialization of our drug candidates.

All but two of our drug candidates are in preclinical development, and their risk of failure is high. It is impossible to predict when or if any of our drug candidates will prove safe or effective in humans or will receive regulatory approval. Before obtaining marketing approval from regulatory authorities for the sale of any drug candidate, we or a collaborator must complete preclinical development and then conduct extensive clinical trials to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the drug candidate in humans. Clinical testing is expensive, difficult to design and implement, can take many years to complete and is uncertain as to outcome. A failure of one or more clinical trials can occur at any stage of development. The outcome of preclinical testing and early clinical trials may not be predictive of the success of later clinical trials, and interim results of a clinical trial do not necessarily predict final results. Moreover, preclinical and clinical data are often susceptible to varying interpretations and analyses, and many companies that have believed their drug candidates performed satisfactorily in preclinical studies and clinical trials have nonetheless failed to obtain marketing approval of their drugs.

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We or our current or future collaborators may experience numerous unforeseen events during, or as a result of, clinical trials that could delay or prevent our or their ability to receive marketing approval or commercialize our drug candidates, including:

·

regulators or institutional review boards may not authorize us or our investigators to commence a clinical trial or conduct a clinical trial at a prospective trial site;

·

we may experience delays in reaching, or fail to reach, agreement on acceptable clinical trial contracts or clinical trial protocols with prospective trial sites;

·

clinical trials of our drug candidates may produce negative or inconclusive results, including failure to demonstrate statistical significance, and we may decide, or regulators may require us, to conduct additional clinical trials or abandon drug development programs;

·

the number of patients required for clinical trials of our drug candidates may be larger than we anticipate, enrollment in these clinical trials may be slower than we anticipate or participants may drop out of these clinical trials at a higher rate than we anticipate;

·

our third-party contractors may fail to comply with regulatory requirements or meet their contractual obligations to us in a timely manner, or at all;

·

regulators or institutional review boards may require that we or our investigators suspend or terminate clinical research for various reasons, including noncompliance with regulatory requirements or a finding that the participants are being exposed to unacceptable health risks;

·

the cost of clinical trials of our drug candidates may be greater than we anticipate;

·

the supply or quality of our drug candidates or other materials necessary to conduct clinical trials of our drug candidates may be insufficient or inadequate; and

·

our drug candidates may have undesirable side effects or other unexpected characteristics, causing us or our investigators, regulators or institutional review boards to suspend or terminate the trials.

If we are required to conduct additional clinical trials or other testing of our drug candidates beyond those that we currently contemplate, if we are unable to successfully complete clinical trials of our drug candidates or other testing, if the results of these clinical trials or tests are not positive or are only modestly positive or if there are safety concerns, we may:

·

be delayed in obtaining marketing approval for our drug candidates;

·

not obtain marketing approval at all;

·

obtain approval for indications or patient populations that are not as broad as intended or desired;

·

obtain approval with labeling that includes significant use or distribution restrictions or safety warnings;

·

be subject to additional post-marketing testing requirements; or

·

have the drug removed from the market after obtaining marketing approval.

Our drug development costs will also increase if we experience delays in testing or marketing approvals. We do not know whether any of our preclinical studies or clinical trials will begin as planned, will need to be restructured or will be completed on schedule, or at all. Significant preclinical study or clinical trial delays also could shorten any periods during which we may have the exclusive right to commercialize our drug candidates or allow our competitors to bring drugs to market before we do, and thereby impair our ability to successfully commercialize our drug candidates.

If we or our collaborators experience delays or difficulties in the enrollment of patients in clinical trials, our receipt of necessary regulatory approvals could be delayed or prevented.

As described in this report, we are currently conducting a Phase 3 clinical trial of our drug candidate uproleselan, for which we currently expect to complete enrollment in the second half of 2021. However, the timing for completion of enrollment in this and other clinical trials could be delayed for a number of reasons. For example, we or our collaborators

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may not be able to initiate or continue clinical trials for our drug candidates if we are unable to locate and enroll a sufficient number of eligible patients to participate in these trials as required by the FDA or similar regulatory authorities outside the United States. In particular, because our drug candidates are intended to treat patients with orphan diseases such as AML and osteosarcoma, our or our collaborators’ ability to enroll eligible patients may be limited or may result in slower enrollment than we anticipate. In addition, some of our competitors have ongoing clinical trials for drug candidates that treat the same or similar indications as our drug candidates, and patients who would otherwise be eligible for our clinical trials may instead enroll in clinical trials of our competitors’ drug candidates. Patient enrollment is also affected by other factors, including:

·

the severity of the disease or condition under investigation;

·

the eligibility criteria for the trial;

·

the perceived risks and benefits of the drug candidate;

·

the availability of drugs approved to treat the disease or condition under investigation;

·

the efforts to facilitate timely enrollment in clinical trials;

·

the patient referral practices of physicians;

·

the ability to monitor patients adequately during and after treatment; and

·

the proximity and availability of clinical trial sites for prospective patients.

Our or our collaborators’ inability to enroll a sufficient number of patients for clinical trials would result in significant delays and could require us or them to abandon one or more clinical trials altogether. Enrollment delays in these clinical trials may result in increased development costs for our drug candidates, which would cause the value of our company to decline and limit our ability to obtain additional financing.

If serious adverse or unacceptable side effects are identified during the development of our drug candidates, we may need to abandon or limit the development of some of our drug candidates.

If our drug candidates are associated with undesirable side effects in clinical trials or have characteristics that are unexpected, we may need to abandon their development or limit their development to more narrow uses or subpopulations in which the undesirable side effects or other characteristics are less prevalent, less severe or more acceptable from a risk-benefit perspective. Many drug candidates that initially showed promise in early stage testing have later been found to cause side effects that prevented their further development.

We may expend our limited resources to pursue a particular drug candidate or indication and fail to capitalize on drug candidates or indications that may be more profitable or for which there is a greater likelihood of success.

Because we have limited financial and management resources, we focus on a limited number of research programs and drug candidates. As a result, we may forego or delay pursuit of opportunities with other drug candidates or for other indications that later prove to have greater commercial potential. Our resource allocation decisions may cause us to fail to capitalize on viable commercial drugs or profitable market opportunities. Our spending on current and future research and development programs and drug candidates for specific indications may not yield any commercially viable drugs. If we do not accurately evaluate the commercial potential or target market for a particular drug candidate, we may relinquish valuable rights to that drug candidate through collaboration, licensing or other arrangements in cases in which it would have been more advantageous for us to retain sole development and commercialization rights.

Risks Related to Our Dependence on Third Parties

Our success depends in part on current and future collaborations. If we are unable to maintain any of these collaborations, or if these collaborations are not successful, our business could be adversely affected.

We have limited capabilities for drug development and do not yet have any capabilities for sales, marketing or distribution. We cannot assure you that our current or future collaborators will develop our drug candidates in a timely

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manner, or at all, or, if regulatory approval for a drug candidate is achieved, that such collaborator will successfully commercialize the candidate.

Any collaborations we might enter into may pose a number of risks, including:

·

collaborators have significant discretion in determining the efforts and resources that they will apply to these collaborations;

·

collaborators may not perform their obligations as expected;

·

collaborators may not pursue the commercialization of any drug candidates that achieve regulatory approval or may elect not to pursue, continue or renew development or commercialization of drug candidates based on clinical trial results, changes in such collaborators’ strategic focus or available funding or external factors, such as an acquisition, that divert resources or create competing priorities;

·

collaborators may delay clinical trials, provide insufficient funding for a clinical trial program, stop a clinical trial or abandon a drug candidate, repeat or conduct new clinical trials or require a new formulation of a drug candidate for clinical testing;

·

collaborators could experience delays in initiating or conducting clinical trials for any number of reasons;

·

collaborators could independently develop, or develop with third parties, drugs that compete directly or indirectly with our drugs or drug candidates if such collaborators believe that competitive products are more likely to be successfully developed or can be commercialized under terms that are more economically attractive than ours;

·

drug candidates discovered in collaboration with us may be viewed by our collaborators as competitive with their own drug candidates or drugs, which may cause such collaborators to cease to devote resources to the commercialization of our drug candidates;

·

a collaborator with marketing and distribution rights to one or more of our drug candidates that achieve regulatory approval may not commit sufficient resources to the marketing and distribution of such drug or drugs;

·

disagreements with collaborators, including disagreements over proprietary rights, contract interpretation or the preferred course of development, might cause delays or termination of the research, development or commercialization of drug candidates, might lead to additional responsibilities for us with respect to drug candidates or might result in litigation or arbitration, any of which would be time consuming and expensive;

·

collaborators may not properly maintain or defend our or their intellectual property rights or may use our or their proprietary information in such a way as to invite litigation that could jeopardize or invalidate such intellectual property or proprietary information or expose us to potential litigation;

·

collaborators may infringe the intellectual property rights of third parties, which may expose us to litigation and potential liability; and

·

collaborations may be terminated for the convenience of the collaborator and, if terminated, we could be required to raise additional capital to pursue further development or commercialization of the applicable drug candidates.

If any collaborations we might enter into do not result in the successful development and commercialization of drugs, or if one of our collaborators terminates its agreement with us, we may not receive any future research funding or milestone or royalty payments under the collaboration.  For example, in February 2020, Pfizer terminated its license agreement with us for the worldwide development and commercialization of rivipansel, thereby eliminating our right to receive any future development or commercialization milestones or royalty payments for sales of the drug candidate.  In addition, even if we are eligible to receive any such payments from a collaborator, they could be substantially delayed. If we do not receive the funding we expect under these agreements, the development of our drug candidates could be delayed and we may need additional resources to develop our drug candidates. All of the risks relating to drug development, regulatory approval and commercialization described in this report also apply to the activities of our collaborators.

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If a current or future collaborator of ours is involved in a business combination, the collaborator might deemphasize or terminate development or commercialization of any drug candidate licensed to it by us. If one of our collaborators terminates its agreement with us, we may find it more difficult to attract new collaborators and our reputation in the business and financial communities could be adversely affected. We may in the future determine to collaborate with pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies for their development and potential commercialization of our drug candidates. We face significant competition in seeking appropriate collaborators. Our ability to reach a definitive agreement for a collaboration will depend, among other things, upon our assessment of a collaborator’s resources and expertise, the terms and conditions of the proposed collaboration and the proposed collaborator’s evaluation of a number of factors. If we are unable to reach agreements with suitable collaborators on a timely basis, on acceptable terms, or at all, we may have to curtail the development of a drug candidate, reduce or delay its development or one or more of our other development programs, delay its potential commercialization or reduce the scope of any sales or marketing activities or increase our expenditures and undertake development or commercialization activities at our own expense. If we elect to fund and undertake development or commercialization activities on our own, we may need to obtain additional expertise and additional capital, which may not be available to us on acceptable terms or at all. If we fail to enter into collaborations and do not have sufficient funds or expertise to undertake the necessary development and commercialization activities, we may not be able to further develop our drug candidates or bring them to market, which would impair our business prospects.

We expect to rely on third parties to conduct our future clinical trials for drug candidates, and those third parties may not perform satisfactorily, including failing to meet deadlines for the completion of such trials.

We have engaged a third-party contract research organization, or CRO, to conduct our ongoing and planned clinical trials for uproleselan and GMI-1359 and expect to engage CROs with respect to any of our other drug candidates that may progress to clinical development. We expect to continue to rely on third parties, such as CROs, clinical data management organizations, medical institutions and clinical investigators, to conduct those clinical trials. Agreements with such third parties might terminate for a variety of reasons, including a failure to perform by the third parties. If we need to enter into alternative arrangements, that would delay our drug development activities.

 

Our reliance on these third parties for research and development activities will reduce our control over these activities, but will not relieve us of our responsibilities. For example, we will remain responsible for ensuring that each of our clinical trials is conducted in accordance with the general investigational plan and protocols for the trial. Moreover, the FDA requires us to comply with standards, commonly referred to as good clinical practices, or GCPs, for conducting, recording and reporting the results of clinical trials to assure that data and reported results are credible and accurate and that the rights, integrity and confidentiality of trial participants are protected. We also are required to register ongoing clinical trials and post the results of completed clinical trials on a government-sponsored database, ClinicalTrials.gov, within specified timeframes. Failure to do so can result in fines, adverse publicity and significant civil and criminal sanctions.

Furthermore, these third parties may also have relationships with other entities, some of which may be our competitors. If these third parties do not successfully carry out their contractual duties, meet expected deadlines or conduct our clinical trials in accordance with regulatory requirements or our stated protocols, we will not be able to obtain, or may be delayed in obtaining, marketing approvals for our drug candidates and will not be able to, or may be delayed in our efforts to, successfully commercialize our drug candidates.

We also expect to rely on other third parties to store and distribute drug supplies for our clinical trials. Any performance failure on the part of our distributors could delay clinical development or marketing approval of our drug candidates or commercialization of our drugs, producing additional losses and depriving us of potential revenue.

We contract with third parties for the manufacturing of some of our drug candidates for preclinical and clinical testing and expect to continue to do so for commercialization. This reliance on third parties increases the risk that we will not have sufficient quantities of our drug candidates or drugs, or such quantities at an acceptable cost, which could delay, prevent or impair our development or commercialization efforts.

 

We do not have any manufacturing facilities or personnel. For our drug candidates other than rivipansel, for which manufacturing responsibility will remain with Pfizer until the first anniversary of the effective date of termination of our

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license agreement with them, we rely, and expect to continue to rely, on third parties for the manufacturing of our drug candidates for preclinical and clinical testing, as well as for commercial manufacture if any of our drug candidates receives marketing approval. Disruption to our supply arrangements may arise from unforeseeable events that impact such third parties, including events such as pandemic, epidemic or outbreak of a disease such as the coronavirus outbreak currently impacting China and other regions of the world. Our reliance on third parties increases the risk that we will not have sufficient quantities of our drug candidates or drugs, or such quantities at an acceptable cost or quality, which could delay, prevent or impair our ability to timely conduct our clinical trials or our other development or commercialization efforts.

We also expect to rely on third-party manufacturers or third-party collaborators for the manufacturing of commercial supply of any other drug candidates for which we or our collaborators obtain marketing approval. We may be unable to establish any agreements with third-party manufacturers or to do so on acceptable terms. Even if we are able to establish agreements with third-party manufacturers, reliance on third-party manufacturers entails additional risks, including:

·

reliance on the third party for regulatory compliance and quality assurance;

·

the possible breach of the manufacturing agreement by the third party;

·

the possible misappropriation of our proprietary information, including our trade secrets and know-how; and

·

the possible termination or non-renewal of the agreement by the third party at a time that is costly or inconvenient for us.

Third-party manufacturers may not be able to comply with current good manufacturing practices, or cGMP, regulations or similar regulatory requirements outside the United States. Our failure, or the failure of our third-party manufacturers, to comply with applicable regulations could result in sanctions being imposed on us, including clinical holds, fines, injunctions, civil penalties, delays, suspension or withdrawal of approvals, license revocation, seizures or recalls of drug candidates or drugs, operating restrictions and criminal prosecutions, any of which could significantly and adversely affect supplies of our drugs.

In addition, in the event that any of our third-party manufacturers fails to comply with such requirements or to perform its obligations to us in relation to quality, timing or otherwise, or if our supply of components or other materials becomes limited or interrupted for other reasons, we may be forced to manufacture the materials ourselves, for which we currently do not have the capabilities or resources, or enter into an agreement with another third party, which we may not be able to do on commercially reasonable terms, if at all. We do not currently have arrangements in place for redundant supply or a second source for bulk drug substance. If our current contract manufacturers cannot perform as agreed, we may be required to replace such manufacturers and we may incur added costs and delays in identifying and qualifying any such replacement. Any replacement of our manufacturers could require significant effort and expertise because there may be a limited number of qualified replacements. If we are required to change manufacturers for any reason, we will be required to verify that the new manufacturer maintains facilities and procedures that comply with quality standards and with all applicable regulations and guidelines. The delays associated with the verification of a new manufacturer could negatively affect our ability to develop our drug candidates in a timely manner or within budget.

Our current and anticipated future dependence upon others for the manufacturing of our drug candidates or drugs may adversely affect our future profit margins and our ability to commercialize any drugs that receive marketing approval on a timely and competitive basis.

We, or our third-party manufacturers, may be unable to successfully scale-up manufacturing of our drug candidates in sufficient quality and quantity, which would delay or prevent us from conducting our ongoing and planned clinical trials and developing our drug candidates.

In order to conduct our ongoing and planned clinical trials of our drug candidates, we will need to manufacture them in large quantities. We, or our manufacturing partners, may be unable to successfully increase the manufacturing capacity for any of our drug candidates in a timely or cost-effective manner, or at all. In addition, quality issues may arise during scale-up activities. If we or our manufacturing partners are unable to successfully scale up the manufacture of our drug candidates in sufficient quality and quantity, the development, testing and clinical trials of that drug

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candidate may be delayed or become infeasible, and marketing approval or commercial launch of any resulting drug may be delayed or not obtained, which could significantly harm our business.

Risks Related to the Commercialization of Our Drug Candidates

Even if any of our drug candidates receives marketing approval, it may fail to achieve the degree of market acceptance by physicians, patients, third-party payors and others in the medical community necessary for commercial success.

If any of our drug candidates receives marketing approval, it may nonetheless fail to gain sufficient market acceptance by physicians, patients, third-party payors and others in the medical community. If our drug candidates do not achieve an adequate level of acceptance, we may not generate significant revenue from drug sales and we may not become profitable. The degree of market acceptance of our drug candidates, if approved for commercial sale, will depend on a number of factors, including:

·

the efficacy and potential advantages compared to alternative treatments;

·

our ability to offer our drugs for sale at competitive prices;

·

the convenience and ease of administration compared to alternative treatments;

·

the willingness of the target patient population to try new therapies and of physicians to prescribe these therapies;

·

the strength of marketing and distribution support;

·

the availability of third-party coverage and adequate reimbursement;

·

the prevalence and severity of any side effects; and

·

any restrictions on the use of our drugs together with other medications.

If we are unable to establish sales, marketing and distribution capabilities for our drug candidates, we may not be successful in commercializing those drug candidates if and when they are approved.

We do not have a sales or marketing infrastructure and have no experience in the sale, marketing or distribution of pharmaceutical drugs. To achieve commercial success for any drug candidate for which we may obtain marketing approval, we will need to establish a sales and marketing organization to market or co-promote such drugs. There are risks involved with establishing our own sales, marketing and distribution capabilities. For example, recruiting and training a sales force is expensive and time consuming and could delay any product launch. If the commercial launch of a drug candidate for which we recruit a sales force and establish marketing capabilities is delayed or does not occur for any reason, we would have prematurely or unnecessarily incurred these commercialization expenses. This may be costly, and our investment would be lost if we cannot retain or reposition our sales and marketing personnel.

Factors that may inhibit our efforts to commercialize our drugs on our own include:

·

our inability to recruit, train and retain adequate numbers of effective sales and marketing personnel;

·

the inability of sales personnel to obtain access to physicians or persuade adequate numbers of physicians to prescribe any future drugs;

·

the lack of complementary drugs to be offered by sales personnel, which may put us at a competitive disadvantage relative to companies with more products; and

·

unforeseen costs and expenses associated with creating an independent sales and marketing organization.

If we are unable to establish our own sales, marketing and distribution capabilities and enter into arrangements with third parties to perform these services, our revenue and our profitability, if any, are likely to be lower than if we were to sell, market and distribute any drugs that we develop ourselves. In addition, we may not be successful in entering into arrangements with third parties to sell, market and distribute our drug candidates or may be unable to do so on terms that are favorable to us. We likely will have little control over such third parties, and any of them may fail to devote the necessary resources and attention to sell and market our drugs effectively. If we do not establish sales, marketing and

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distribution capabilities successfully, either on our own or in collaboration with third parties, we will not be successful in commercializing our drug candidates.

We face substantial competition, which may result in others discovering, developing or commercializing drugs before or more successfully than we do.

The development and commercialization of new drugs is highly competitive. We face competition with respect to our current drug candidates, and we will face competition with respect to any drug candidates that we may seek to develop or commercialize in the future, from major pharmaceutical companies, specialty pharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies, academic institutions, governmental agencies and public and private research institutions. Should any competitors’ drug candidates receive regulatory or marketing approval prior to ours, they may establish a strong market position and be difficult to displace or diminish the need for our drug candidates.

 

The key competitive factors affecting the success of all of our drug candidates, if approved, are likely to be their safety, efficacy, convenience, price, the level of generic competition and the availability of coverage and reimbursement from government and other third-party payors.  As described above under “Business—Competition,” we expect that our drug candidates will compete with approved therapies and those currently in development by other companies.   To the extent that competitive drugs or drug candidates developed by others are successful in treating our target indications, it could reduce the market opportunity for our drug candidates.

Many of the companies against which we are competing, or against which we may compete in the future, have significantly greater financial resources and expertise in research and development, manufacturing, preclinical testing, conducting clinical trials, obtaining regulatory approvals and marketing approved drugs than we do. Mergers and acquisitions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries may result in even more resources being concentrated among a smaller number of our competitors. Smaller or early stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large and established companies. These competitors also compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified scientific and management personnel and establishing clinical trial sites and patient registration for clinical trials, as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our programs.

Our commercial opportunity could be reduced or eliminated if our competitors develop and commercialize drugs that are safer, more effective, have fewer or less severe side effects, are more convenient or are less expensive than any drugs that we may develop. Our competitors also may obtain the FDA or other regulatory approval for their drugs more rapidly than we may obtain approval for ours, which could result in our competitors establishing a strong market position before we are able to enter the market.

In addition, because we have no patents with respect to our glycomimetics platform, our competitors may use our methods, or acquire similar expertise, in order to develop glycomimetic drug candidates and progress these drug candidates through clinical development and commercialization, which could impair our ability to successfully commercialize our drug candidates or otherwise limit our commercial opportunities.

Even if we or our collaborators are able to commercialize any of our drug candidates, the drugs may become subject to unfavorable pricing regulations or third-party coverage and reimbursement policies.

Our and our collaborators’ ability to commercialize any of our drug candidates successfully will depend, in part, on the extent to which coverage and adequate reimbursement for these drugs and related treatments will be available from government payor programs at the federal and state levels authorities, including Medicare and Medicaid, private health insurers, managed care plans and other organizations. Government authorities and third-party payors, such as private health insurers and health maintenance organizations, decide which medications they will pay for and establish reimbursement levels. A primary trend in the U.S. healthcare industry and elsewhere is cost containment. Government authorities and third-party payors have attempted to control costs by limiting coverage and the amount of reimbursement for particular medications. Increasingly, third-party payors are requiring that drug companies provide them with predetermined discounts from list prices and are challenging the prices charged for drugs. Coverage and reimbursement may not be available for any drug that we or our collaborators commercialize and, even if these are available, the level of reimbursement may not be satisfactory. Inadequate reimbursement levels may adversely affect the demand for, or the price of, any drug candidate for which we or our collaborators obtain marketing approval. Obtaining and maintaining

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adequate reimbursement for our drugs may be difficult. We may be required to conduct expensive pharmacoeconomic studies to justify coverage and reimbursement or the level of reimbursement relative to other therapies. If coverage and adequate reimbursement are not available or reimbursement is available only to limited levels, we or our collaborators may not be able to successfully commercialize any drug candidates for which marketing approval is obtained.

There may be significant delays in obtaining coverage and reimbursement for newly approved drugs, and coverage may be more limited than the indications for which the drug is approved by the FDA or similar regulatory authorities outside the United States. Moreover, eligibility for coverage and reimbursement does not imply that a drug will be paid for in all cases or at a rate that covers our costs, including research, development, manufacture, sale and distribution expenses. Interim reimbursement levels for new drugs, if applicable, may also not be sufficient to cover our costs and may not be made permanent. Reimbursement rates may vary according to the use of the drug and the clinical setting in which it is used, may be based on reimbursement levels already set for lower cost drugs and may be incorporated into existing payments for other services. Net prices for drugs may be reduced by mandatory discounts or rebates required by government healthcare programs or private payors and by any future relaxation of laws that presently restrict imports of drugs from countries where they may be sold at lower prices than in the United States. Third-party payors often rely upon Medicare coverage policy and payment limitations in setting their own reimbursement policies. However, one payor’s determination to provide coverage for a drug does not assure that other payors will also provide coverage for the drug. Our or our collaborators’ inability to promptly obtain coverage and adequate reimbursement rates from both government-funded and private payors for any approved drugs that we develop could adversely affect our operating results, our ability to raise capital needed to commercialize drugs and our overall financial condition.

The regulations that govern marketing approvals, pricing, coverage and reimbursement for new drugs vary widely from country to country. Current and future legislation may significantly change the approval requirements in ways that could involve additional costs and cause delays in obtaining approvals. Some countries require approval of the sale price of a drug before it can be marketed. In many countries, the pricing review period begins after marketing or licensing approval is granted. In some foreign markets, prescription pharmaceutical pricing remains subject to continuing governmental control even after initial approval is granted. As a result, we or our collaborators might obtain marketing approval for a drug in a particular country, but then be subject to price regulations that delay commercial launch of the drug, possibly for lengthy time periods, and negatively impact our ability to generate revenue from the sale of the drug in that country. Adverse pricing limitations may hinder our ability to recoup our investment in one or more drug candidates, even if our drug candidates obtain marketing approval.

There can be no assurance that our drug candidates, if they are approved for sale in the United States or in other countries, will be considered medically reasonable and necessary for a specific indication, that they will be considered cost-effective by third-party payors, that coverage or an adequate level of reimbursement will be available or that third-party payors’ reimbursement policies will not adversely affect our ability to sell our drug candidates profitably if they are approved for sale.

Product liability lawsuits against us could cause us to incur substantial liabilities and to limit commercialization of any drugs that we may develop.

We face an inherent risk of product liability exposure related to the testing of our drug candidates in human clinical trials, and will face an even greater risk if we commercially sell any drugs that we may develop. If we cannot successfully defend ourselves against claims that our drug candidates or drugs caused injuries, we will incur substantial liabilities. Regardless of merit or eventual outcome, liability claims may result in:

·

decreased demand for any drug candidates or drugs that we may develop;

·

injury to our reputation and significant negative media attention;

·

withdrawal of clinical trial participants;

·

significant costs to defend the related litigation;

·

substantial monetary awards paid to trial participants or patients;

·

loss of revenue;

·

reduced resources of our management to pursue our business strategy; and

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·

the inability to commercialize any drugs that we may develop.

We carry clinical trial insurance coverage in an amount that we believe is sufficient in relation to our clinical trials being conducted in the United States and in foreign countries where we have or plan to have sites as part of our clinical trials for uproleselan. The use of our drug candidates in clinical trials may result in liability claims for which our current insurance would not be adequate to cover all liabilities that we may incur. In addition, we may need to increase our insurance coverage as we expand our clinical trials or if we commence commercialization of our drug candidates. Insurance coverage is increasingly expensive. We may not be able to maintain insurance coverage at a reasonable cost or in an amount adequate to satisfy any liability that may arise.

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

If we are unable to obtain and maintain patent protection for our drug candidates, or if the scope of the patent protection obtained is not sufficiently broad, our competitors could develop and commercialize drug candidates similar or identical to ours, and our ability to successfully commercialize our drug candidates may be impaired.

Our success depends in large part on our ability to obtain and maintain patent protection in the United States and other countries with respect to our drug candidates. We seek to protect our proprietary position by filing patent applications in the United States and abroad related to our drug candidates.

The patent prosecution process is expensive and time consuming, and we may not be able to file and prosecute all necessary or desirable patent applications at a reasonable cost or in a timely manner. It is also possible that we will fail to identify patentable aspects of our research and development output before it is too late to obtain patent protection. We may not have the right to control the preparation, filing and prosecution of patent applications, or to maintain the rights to patents licensed to third parties. Therefore, these patents and applications may not be prosecuted and enforced in a manner consistent with the best interests of our business.

The patent position of biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies generally is highly uncertain, involves complex legal and factual questions and has in recent years been the subject of much litigation. In addition, the laws of foreign countries may not protect our rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States, or vice versa. For example, European patent law restricts the patentability of methods of treatment of the human body more than U.S. law does. Publications of discoveries in the scientific literature often lag behind the actual discoveries, and patent applications in the United States and other jurisdictions are typically not published until 18 months after filing or, in some cases, not at all. Therefore, we cannot know with certainty whether we were the first to make the inventions claimed in our patents or pending patent applications, or that we were the first to file for patent protection of such inventions. As a result, the issuance, scope, validity, enforceability and commercial value of our patent rights are highly uncertain. Our pending and future patent applications may not result in patents being issued that protect our drug candidates, in whole or in part, or which effectively prevent others from commercializing competitive drug candidates. Changes in either the patent laws or interpretation of the patent laws in the United States and other countries may diminish the value of our patents or narrow the scope of our patent protection.

Recent patent reform legislation could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of our patent applications and the enforcement or defense of our issued patents. On September 16, 2011, the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, or the Leahy-Smith Act, was signed into law. The Leahy-Smith Act includes a number of significant changes to U.S. patent law. These include provisions that affect the way patent applications are prosecuted and may also affect patent litigation. The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office recently developed new regulations and procedures to govern administration of the Leahy-Smith Act, and many of the substantive changes to patent law associated with the Leahy-Smith Act, and in particular, the first to file provisions, only became effective on March 16, 2013. Accordingly, it is not clear what, if any, impact the Leahy-Smith Act will have on the operation of our business. However, the Leahy-Smith Act and its implementation could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of our patent applications and the enforcement or defense of our issued patents, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

Moreover, we may be subject to a third-party preissuance submission of prior art to the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, or become involved in opposition, derivation, reexamination, inter partes review, post-grant review or interference proceedings challenging our patent rights or the patent rights of others. An adverse determination in any such submission, proceeding or litigation could reduce the scope of, or invalidate, our patent rights, allow third parties to commercialize our drug candidates and compete directly with us, without payment to us, or result in our inability to

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manufacture or commercialize drugs without infringing third-party patent rights. In addition, if the breadth or strength of protection provided by our patents and patent applications is threatened, it could dissuade companies from collaborating with us to license, develop or commercialize current or future drug candidates.

Even if our patent applications issue as patents, they may not issue in a form that will provide us with any meaningful protection, prevent competitors from competing with us or otherwise provide us with any competitive advantage. Our competitors may be able to circumvent our patents by developing similar or alternative drug candidates in a non-infringing manner.

In addition, the issuance of a patent is not conclusive as to its inventorship, scope, validity or enforceability, and our patents may be challenged in the courts or patent offices in the United States and abroad. Such challenges may result in loss of exclusivity or freedom to operate or in patent claims being narrowed, invalidated or held unenforceable, in whole or in part, which could limit our ability to stop others from using or commercializing similar or identical drug candidates, or limit the duration of the patent protection of our drug candidates. Given the amount of time required for the development, testing and regulatory review of new drug candidates, patents protecting such candidates might expire before or shortly after such candidates are commercialized. As a result, our patent portfolio may not provide us with sufficient rights to exclude others from commercializing drugs similar or identical to ours.

We may become involved in lawsuits to protect or enforce our patents or other intellectual property, which could be expensive, time consuming and unsuccessful.

Competitors may infringe our issued patents or other intellectual property. To counter infringement or unauthorized use, we may be required to file infringement claims, which can be expensive and time consuming. Any claims we assert against perceived infringers could provoke these parties to assert counterclaims against us alleging that we infringe their patents. In addition, in a patent infringement proceeding, a court may decide that a patent of ours is invalid or unenforceable, in whole or in part, construe the patent’s claims narrowly or refuse to stop the other party from using the technology at issue on the grounds that our patents do not cover the technology. An adverse result in any litigation proceeding could put one or more of our patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly.

We may need to license intellectual property from third parties, and such licenses may not be available or may not be available on commercially reasonable terms.

A third party may hold intellectual property, including patent, rights that are important or necessary to the development of our drug candidates. It may be necessary for us to use patented or proprietary technology of third parties to commercialize our drug candidates, in which case we would be required to obtain a license from these third parties on commercially reasonable terms, or our business could be harmed, possibly materially.

Third parties may initiate legal proceedings alleging that we are infringing their intellectual property rights, the outcome of which would be uncertain and could have a material adverse effect on the success of our business.

Our commercial success depends upon our ability, and the ability of our collaborators, to develop, manufacture, market and sell our drug candidates without infringing the proprietary rights of third parties. There is considerable intellectual property litigation in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries. We may become party to, or threatened with, future adversarial proceedings or litigation regarding intellectual property rights with respect to our drug candidates, including interference or derivation proceedings before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Third parties may assert infringement claims against us based on existing patents or patents that may be granted in the future.

If we are found to infringe a third party’s intellectual property rights, we could be required to obtain a license from such third party to continue developing and marketing our drug candidates. However, we may not be able to obtain any required license on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Even if we were able to obtain a license, it could be non-exclusive, thereby giving our competitors access to the same technologies licensed to us. We could be forced, including by court order, to cease commercializing the infringing drug. In addition, we could be found liable for monetary damages, including treble damages and attorneys’ fees if we are found to have willfully infringed a patent. A finding of infringement could prevent us from commercializing our drug candidates or force us to cease some of our business

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operations. Claims that we have misappropriated the confidential information or trade secrets of third parties could have a similar negative impact on our business.

We may be subject to claims by third parties asserting that we or our employees have misappropriated their intellectual property, or claiming ownership of what we regard as our own intellectual property.

Many of our employees were previously employed at universities or other biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies. Although we try to ensure that our employees do not use the proprietary information or know-how of others in their work for us, we may be subject to claims that these employees or we have used or disclosed intellectual property, including trade secrets or other proprietary information, of any such employee’s former employer. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims.

In addition, while it is our policy to require our employees and contractors who may be involved in the development of intellectual property to execute agreements assigning such intellectual property to us, we may be unsuccessful in executing such an agreement with each party who in fact develops intellectual property that we regard as our own. Our and their assignment agreements may not be self-executing or may be breached, and we may be forced to bring claims against third parties, or defend claims they may bring against us, to determine the ownership of what we regard as our intellectual property.

If we fail in prosecuting or defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel. Even if we are successful in prosecuting or defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management.

Intellectual property litigation could cause us to spend substantial resources and distract our personnel from their normal responsibilities.

Even if resolved in our favor, litigation or other legal proceedings relating to intellectual property claims may cause us to incur significant expenses, and could distract our technical and management personnel from their normal responsibilities. In addition, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments, and if securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative it could have a substantial adverse effect on the price of our common stock. Such litigation or proceedings could substantially increase our operating losses and reduce the resources available for development activities or any future sales, marketing or distribution activities. We may not have sufficient financial or other resources to conduct such litigation or proceedings adequately. Some of our competitors may be able to sustain the costs of such litigation or proceedings more effectively than we can because of their greater financial resources. Uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of patent litigation or other proceedings could compromise our ability to compete in the marketplace.

If we are unable to protect the confidentiality of our trade secrets, our business and competitive position would be harmed.

In addition to seeking patents for our drug candidates, we also rely on trade secrets, including unpatented know-how, technology and other proprietary information, to maintain our competitive position. For example, our platform is based on trade secrets that consist largely of expertise in carbohydrate chemistry and knowledge of carbohydrate biology. We do not believe that we can obtain patent protection for our platform. Thus, our competitors may use our methods, or acquire similar expertise, in order to develop glycomimetic drug candidates and progress these drug candidates through clinical development and commercialization, which could impair our ability to successfully commercialize our drug candidates.

We seek to protect our trade secrets, in part, by entering into non-disclosure and confidentiality agreements with parties who have access to them, such as our employees, corporate collaborators, outside scientific collaborators, contract manufacturers, consultants, advisors and other third parties. We also enter into confidentiality and invention or patent assignment agreements with our employees and consultants. Despite these efforts, any of these parties may breach the agreements and disclose our proprietary information, including our trade secrets, and we may not be able to obtain adequate remedies for such breaches. Enforcing a claim that a party illegally disclosed or misappropriated a trade secret is difficult, expensive and time consuming, and the outcome is unpredictable. In addition, some courts inside and outside the United States are less willing or unwilling to protect trade secrets. If any of our trade secrets were to be lawfully obtained or independently developed by a competitor, we would have no right to prevent them, or those to whom they

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communicate it, from using that technology or information to compete with us. If any of our trade secrets were to be disclosed to or independently developed by a competitor, our competitive position would be harmed.

Risks Related to Regulatory Approval of Our Drug Candidates and Other Legal Compliance Matters

If we or our collaborators are not able to obtain, or if there are delays in obtaining, required regulatory approvals, we or they will not be able to commercialize our drug candidates and our ability to generate revenue will be materially impaired.

Our drug candidates and the activities associated with their development and commercialization, including their design, testing, manufacture, safety, efficacy, recordkeeping, labeling, storage, approval, advertising, promotion, sale and distribution, are subject to comprehensive regulation by the FDA and other regulatory agencies in the United States and by the European Medicines Agency, or EMA, and similar regulatory authorities outside the United States. Failure to obtain marketing approval for a drug candidate will prevent us or our collaborators from commercializing the drug candidate. We have not received approval to market any of our drug candidates from regulatory authorities in any jurisdiction. We have only limited experience in filing and supporting the applications necessary to gain marketing approvals and expect to rely on third-party CROs to assist us in this process. Securing marketing approval requires the submission of extensive preclinical and clinical data and supporting information to regulatory authorities for each therapeutic indication to establish the drug candidate’s safety and efficacy. Securing marketing approval also requires the submission of information about the product manufacturing process to, and inspection of manufacturing facilities by, applicable regulatory authorities. Our drug candidates may not be effective, may be only moderately effective or may prove to have undesirable or unintended side effects, toxicities or other characteristics that may preclude our ability to obtain marketing approval or prevent or limit commercial use. If any of our drug candidates receives marketing approval, the accompanying label may limit the approved use of our drug, which could limit sales of the drug.

The process of obtaining marketing approvals, both in the United States and abroad, is expensive and may take many years if additional clinical trials are required, if approval is obtained at all, and can vary substantially based upon a variety of factors, including the type, complexity and novelty of the drug candidates involved. Changes in marketing approval policies during the development period, changes in or the enactment of additional statutes or regulations or changes in regulatory review for each submitted drug application may cause delays in the approval or rejection of an application. Regulatory authorities have substantial discretion in the approval process and may refuse to accept any application, or may decide that our data are insufficient for approval and require additional preclinical, clinical or other studies. In addition, varying interpretations of the data obtained from preclinical and clinical testing could delay, limit or prevent marketing approval of a drug candidate. Any marketing approval we ultimately obtain may be limited or subject to restrictions or post-approval commitments that render the approved drug not commercially viable.

If we experience delays in obtaining approval or if we fail to obtain approval of our drug candidates, the commercial prospects for our drug candidates may be harmed and our ability to generate revenue will be materially impaired.

Even though we have obtained orphan drug designation for several of our drug candidates, we may not be able to obtain orphan drug marketing exclusivity for these or any of our other drug candidates.

Regulatory authorities in some jurisdictions, including the United States and the European Union, or EU, may designate drugs for relatively small patient populations as orphan drugs. Under the Orphan Drug Act, the FDA may designate a drug as an orphan drug if it is intended to treat a rare disease or condition, which is generally defined as a patient population of fewer than 200,000 individuals annually in the United States. We have obtained orphan drug designation from the FDA for uproleselan for the treatment of AML, as well as for rivipansel for the treatment of SCD and GMI-1359 for the treatment of osteosarcoma. However, in order to obtain marketing exclusivity in a particular jurisdiction, we must receive the first marketing approval of the drug for its intended indication. In addition, the orphan drug designation does not convey any advantage in, or shorten the duration of, the regulatory review or approval process.

Generally, if a drug with an orphan drug designation subsequently receives the first marketing approval for the indication for which it has such designation, the drug is entitled to a period of marketing exclusivity, which precludes the FDA or the EMA from approving another marketing application for the same drug for the same indication for that time period. The applicable period is seven years in the United States and 10 years in the EU. The EU exclusivity period can be reduced to six years if a drug no longer meets the criteria for orphan drug designation or if the drug is sufficiently

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profitable so that market exclusivity is no longer justified. Orphan drug exclusivity may be lost if the FDA or the EMA determines that the request for designation was materially defective or if the manufacturer is unable to assure sufficient quantity of the drug to meet the needs of patients with the rare disease or condition.

Even if we obtain orphan drug exclusivity for a drug candidate, that exclusivity may not effectively protect the candidate from competition because different drugs can be approved for the same condition. Even after an orphan drug is approved, the FDA can subsequently approve another drug with the same active moiety for the same condition if the FDA concludes that the later drug is clinically superior in that it is shown to be safer, more effective or makes a major contribution to patient care.

The FDA fast track designation and additional breakthrough therapy designation for uproleselan may not actually lead to a faster development or regulatory review or approval process.

If a drug is intended for the treatment of a serious or life-threatening disease or condition and the drug demonstrates the potential to address unmet medical needs for this disease or condition, the drug sponsor may apply for the FDA fast track designation. If fast track designation is obtained, the FDA may initiate review of sections of a new drug application, or NDA, before the application is complete. This “rolling review” is available if the applicant provides, and the FDA approves, a schedule for submission of the individual sections of the application.

Although we have obtained a fast track designation from the FDA for uproleselan to treat AML and breakthrough therapy designation for uproleselan to treat AML, we may not experience a faster development process, review or approval compared to conventional FDA procedures. Our fast track designation may be withdrawn by the FDA if it believes that the designation is no longer supported by data from our clinical development programs. Our fast track designation does not guarantee that we will qualify for or be able to take advantage of the expedited review procedures or that we will ultimately obtain regulatory approval of uproleselan.

Failure to obtain marketing approval in international jurisdictions would prevent our drug candidates from being marketed abroad.

In order to market and sell our drugs in the EU and any other jurisdictions, we or our collaborators must obtain separate marketing approvals and comply with numerous and varying regulatory requirements. The approval procedure varies among countries and can involve additional testing. The time required to obtain approval may differ substantially from that required to obtain the FDA approval. The regulatory approval process outside the United States generally includes all of the risks associated with obtaining the FDA approval. In addition, in many countries outside the United States, it is required that the drug be approved for reimbursement before it can be approved for sale in that country. We or our collaborators may not obtain approvals from regulatory authorities outside the United States on a timely basis, if at all. Approval by the FDA does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other countries or jurisdictions, and approval by one regulatory authority outside the United States does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other countries or jurisdictions or by the FDA. However, failure to obtain approval in one jurisdiction may impact our ability to obtain approval elsewhere. We or our collaborators may not be able to file for marketing approvals and may not receive necessary approvals to commercialize our drugs in any market.

A variety of risks associated with developing and marketing our drug candidates internationally could hurt our business.

We or our collaborators may seek regulatory approval for uproleselan and our other drug candidates outside of the United States and, accordingly, we expect that we will be subject to additional risks related to operating in foreign countries if we obtain the necessary approvals, including:

·

differing regulatory requirements in foreign countries;

·

the potential for so-called parallel importing, which is what happens when a local seller, faced with high or higher local prices, opts to import goods from a foreign market with low or lower prices rather than buying them locally;

·

unexpected changes in tariffs, trade barriers, price and exchange controls and other regulatory requirements;

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·

economic weakness, including inflation or political instability in particular foreign economies and markets;

·

compliance with tax, employment, immigration and labor laws for employees living or traveling abroad;

·

foreign taxes, including withholding of payroll taxes;

·

foreign currency fluctuations, which could result in increased operating expenses and reduced revenues, and other obligations related to doing business in another country;

·

difficulties staffing and managing foreign operations;

·

workforce uncertainty in countries where labor unrest is more common than in the United States;

·

potential liability under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act or comparable foreign regulations;

·

challenges enforcing our contractual and intellectual property rights, especially in foreign countries that do not respect and protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as the United States;

·

production shortages resulting from any events affecting raw material supply or manufacturing capabilities abroad; and

·

business interruptions resulting from pandemic, epidemic or disease outbreaks or geo-political actions, including war and terrorism.

Pursuant to the terms of our collaboration and license agreement, Apollomics is responsible for the clinical development and commercialization of uproleselan and GMI-1687 in Greater China. The recent outbreak of the coronavirus, first identified in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, could have a material adverse effect on Apollomics’ ability to develop these drug candidates in a timely manner due to disruptions in the region, travel restrictions, temporary closures of businesses and suspension of services and supplies. Any such delay or disruptions in clinical development could result in the delay of any potential milestone payments to us under the license and collaboration agreement, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial position and results of operations.

Any drug candidate for which we obtain marketing approval could be subject to post-marketing restrictions or recall or withdrawal from the market, and we may therefore be subject to penalties if we fail to comply with regulatory requirements or if we experience unanticipated problems with our drug candidates, when and if any of them are approved.

Any drug candidate for which we obtain marketing approval, along with manufacturing processes, post-approval clinical data, labeling, advertising and promotional activities for such drug candidate, will be subject to continual requirements of and review by the FDA and other regulatory authorities. These requirements include submissions of safety and other post-marketing information and reports, registration and listing requirements, cGMP requirements relating to manufacturing, quality control, quality assurance and corresponding maintenance of records and documents, requirements regarding the distribution of samples to physicians and recordkeeping. Even if marketing approval of a drug candidate is granted, the approval may be subject to limitations on the indicated uses for which the drug may be marketed or to the conditions of approval, including the requirement to implement a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy. If any of our drug candidates receives marketing approval, the accompanying label may limit the approved use of our drug, which could limit its sales.

The FDA may also impose requirements for costly post-marketing studies or clinical trials and surveillance to monitor the safety or efficacy of the drug. The FDA closely regulates the post-approval marketing and promotion of drugs to ensure drugs are marketed only for the approved indications and in accordance with the provisions of the approved labeling. The FDA imposes stringent restrictions on manufacturers’ communications regarding off-label use, and if we do not market our drugs for their approved indications, we may be subject to enforcement action for off-label marketing. Violations of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act relating to the promotion of prescription drugs may lead to investigations alleging violations of federal and state healthcare fraud and abuse laws, as well as state consumer protection laws.

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In addition, later discovery of previously unknown adverse events or other problems with our drugs, manufacturers or manufacturing processes, or failure to comply with regulatory requirements, may have negative consequences, including:

·

restrictions on such drugs, manufacturers or manufacturing processes;

·

restrictions on the labeling or marketing of a drug;

·

restrictions on product distribution or use;

·

requirements to conduct post-marketing studies or clinical trials;

·

warning letters;

·

recall or withdrawal of the drugs from the market;

·

refusal to approve pending applications or supplements to approved applications that we submit;

·

clinical holds;

·

fines, restitution or disgorgement of revenue or profit;

·

suspension or withdrawal of marketing approvals;

·

refusal to permit the import or export of our drugs;

·

product seizure; or

·

injunctions or the imposition of civil or criminal penalties.

Non-compliance with the EU requirements regarding safety monitoring or pharmacovigilance, and with requirements related to the development of drugs for the pediatric population, can also result in significant financial penalties. Similarly, failure to comply with the EU’s requirements regarding the protection of personal information can also lead to significant penalties and sanctions.

Our current and future business and relationships with customers and third-party payors in the United States and elsewhere may be subject, directly or indirectly, to applicable anti-kickback, fraud and abuse, false claims, transparency, health information privacy and security and other healthcare laws and regulations, which could expose us to significant penalties, including criminal sanctions, civil penalties, contractual damages, reputational harm, administrative burdens and diminished profits and future earnings.

Healthcare providers and third-party payors in the United States and elsewhere will play a primary role in the recommendation and prescription of any drug candidates for which we obtain marketing approval. Our current and future arrangements with third-party payors and customers may expose us to broadly applicable fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations, including, without limitation, the federal Anti-Kickback Statute and the federal False Claims Act, which may constrain the business or financial arrangements and relationships through which we conduct clinical research, sell, market and distribute any drugs for which we obtain marketing approval. In addition, we may be subject to transparency laws and patient data privacy and security regulation by the U.S. federal and state governments and by governments in foreign jurisdictions in which we conduct our business. The applicable federal, state and foreign healthcare laws and regulations that may affect our ability to operate include:

·

the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, which prohibits, among other things, persons from knowingly and willfully soliciting, offering, receiving or providing remuneration, directly or indirectly, in cash or in kind, to induce or reward, or in return for, either the referral of an individual for, or the purchase, order or recommendation of, any good or service, for which payment may be made under federal healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid;

·

federal civil and criminal false claims laws, including the federal False Claims Act, which impose criminal and civil penalties, including civil whistleblower or qui tam actions, and civil monetary penalty laws that prohibit individuals or entities for knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, to the federal government, including the Medicare and Medicaid programs, claims for payment that are false or fraudulent

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or making a false statement to avoid, decrease or conceal an obligation to pay money to the federal government;

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the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, which imposes criminal and civil liability for executing a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program or making false statements relating to healthcare matters;

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HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009, or HITECH, and their respective implementing regulations, which impose obligations on covered healthcare providers, health plans, and healthcare clearinghouses, as well as their business associates that create, receive, maintain or transmit individually identifiable health information for or on behalf of a covered entity, with respect to safeguarding the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information;

·

the federal Open Payments program, pursuant to the Physician Payments Sunshine Act, which requires manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies for which payment is available under Medicare, Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program, with specific exceptions, to report annually to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, or CMS, information related to “payments or other transfers of value” made to physicians, which is defined to include doctors, dentists, optometrists, podiatrists and chiropractors, and teaching hospitals and applicable manufacturers and applicable group purchasing organizations to report annually to CMS ownership and investment interests held by the physicians and their immediate family members, with disclosure of such information to be made by CMS on a publicly available website. Beginning in 2022, applicable manufacturers also will be required to report such information regarding payments and transfers of value provided, as well as ownership and investment interests held, during the previous year to physician assistants, nurse practitioners, clinical nurse specialists, certified nurse anesthetists and certified nurse midwives; and

·

analogous state and foreign laws and regulations, such as state anti-kickback and false claims laws, which may apply to sales or marketing arrangements and claims involving healthcare items or services reimbursed by non-governmental third-party payors, including private insurers; state and foreign laws that require pharmaceutical companies to comply with the pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government or otherwise restrict payments that may be made to healthcare providers; state and foreign laws that require drug manufacturers to report information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians and other healthcare providers or marketing expenditures; state and local laws requiring the registration of pharmaceutical sales representatives; and state and foreign laws governing the privacy and security of health information in certain circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not preempted by HIPAA, thus complicating compliance efforts.

Efforts to ensure that our business arrangements with third parties will comply with applicable healthcare laws and regulations may involve substantial costs. It is possible that governmental authorities will conclude that our business practices may not comply with current or future statutes, regulations or case law involving applicable fraud and abuse or other healthcare laws and regulations. If our operations are found to be in violation of any of these laws or any other governmental regulations that may apply to us, we may be subject to significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, including, without limitation, damages, fines, individual imprisonment, additional reporting requirements and oversight if we become subject to a corporate integrity agreement or similar agreement to resolve allegations of non-compliance with these laws, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings, disgorgement, exclusion from participation in government healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations, which could have a material adverse effect on our business. If any of the physicians or other healthcare providers or entities with whom we expect to do business, including our collaborators, is found not to be in compliance with applicable laws, it may be subject to criminal, civil or administrative sanctions, including exclusions from participation in government healthcare programs, which could also materially affect our business.

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Recently enacted and future legislation may increase the difficulty and cost for us to obtain marketing approval of and commercialize our drug candidates and affect the prices we may obtain.

In the United States and some foreign jurisdictions, there have been a number of legislative and regulatory changes and proposed changes regarding the healthcare system that could prevent or delay marketing approval of our drug candidates, restrict or regulate post-approval activities and affect our ability to profitably sell any drug candidates for which we obtain marketing approval.

Among policy makers and payors in the United States and elsewhere, there is significant interest in promoting changes in healthcare systems with the stated goals of containing healthcare costs, improving quality and expanding access. In the United States, the pharmaceutical industry has been a particular focus of these efforts, which include major legislative initiatives to reduce the cost of care through changes in the healthcare system, including limits on the pricing, coverage, and reimbursement of pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical products, especially under government-funded health care programs, and increased governmental control of drug. In March 2010, President Obama signed into law the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act, or collectively PPACA, a sweeping law intended to broaden access to health insurance, reduce or constrain the growth of healthcare spending, improve quality of care, enhance remedies against fraud and abuse, add new transparency requirements for the healthcare and health insurance industries, impose new taxes and fees on the health industry and impose additional health policy reforms.

Among the provisions of PPACA of importance to our business and potential drug candidates are:

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an annual, nondeductible fee on any entity that manufactures or imports specified branded prescription drugs and biologic agents, apportioned among these entities according to their market share in certain government healthcare programs;

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an increase in the statutory minimum rebates a manufacturer must pay under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program to 23.1% and 13.0% of the average manufacturer price for branded and generic drugs, respectively;

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expansion of healthcare fraud and abuse laws, including the False Claims Act and the Anti-Kickback Statute, new government investigative powers and enhanced penalties for non-compliance;

·

a new Medicare Part D coverage gap discount program, in which manufacturers must now agree to offer 70% point-of-sale discounts off negotiated prices of applicable brand drugs to eligible beneficiaries during their coverage gap period, as a condition for a manufacturer’s outpatient drugs to be covered under Medicare Part D;

·

extension of a manufacturer’s Medicaid rebate liability to covered drugs dispensed to individuals who are enrolled in Medicaid managed care organizations;

·

expansion of eligibility criteria for Medicaid programs by, among other things, allowing states to offer Medicaid coverage to additional individuals and by adding new mandatory eligibility categories for certain individuals with income at or below 133% of the federal poverty level, thereby potentially increasing a manufacturer’s Medicaid rebate liability;

·

expansion of the entities eligible for discounts under the Public Health Service pharmaceutical pricing program;

·

the new requirements under the federal Open Payments program and its implementing regulations;

·

a new requirement to annually report drug samples that manufacturers and distributors provide to physicians; and

·

a new Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute to oversee, identify priorities in, and conduct comparative clinical effectiveness research, along with funding for such research.

 

There remain judicial and Congressional challenges to certain aspects of PPACA, as well as efforts by the Trump administration to repeal or replace certain aspects of the PPACA. Since January 2017, President Trump has signed two Executive Orders and other directives designed to delay the implementation of certain provisions of the PPACA or otherwise circumvent some of the requirements for health insurance mandated by the PPACA. Concurrently, Congress

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has considered legislation that would repeal or repeal and replace all or part of the PPACA. While Congress has not passed comprehensive repeal legislation, several bills affecting the implementation of certain taxes under the ACA have been signed into law. The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, or Tax Act, included a provision which repealed, effective January 1, 2019, the tax-based shared responsibility payment imposed by the PPACA on certain individuals who fail to maintain qualifying health coverage for all or part of a year that is commonly referred to as the “individual mandate”. In addition, the 2020 federal spending package permanently eliminates, effective January 1, 2020, the ACA-mandated “Cadillac” tax on high-cost employer-sponsored health coverage and medical device tax and, effective January 1, 2021, also eliminates the health insurer tax. On December 14, 2018, a Texas U.S. District Court Judge ruled that the PPACA is unconstitutional in its entirety because the “individual mandate” was repealed by Congress as part of the Tax Act. Additionally, on December 18, 2019, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 5th Circuit upheld the District Court ruling that the individual mandate was unconstitutional and remanded the case back to the District Court to determine whether the remaining provisions of the PPACA are invalid as well. It is unclear how this decision, future decisions, subsequent appeals, and other efforts to repeal and replace the PPACA will impact the PPACA and our business.

In addition, other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted since PPACA was enacted. These changes include aggregate reductions to Medicare payments to providers of up to 2% per fiscal year, which began in 2013, pursuant to the Budget Control Act of 2011. On March 1, 2013, the President signed an executive order implementing the 2% Medicare payment reductions, and on April 1, 2013, these reductions went into effect. Pursuant to the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015, these reductions will stay in effect through 2029, unless additional Congressional action is taken.  In January 2013, President Obama signed into law the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, which, among other things, reduced Medicare payments to several providers and increased the statute of limitations period for the government to recover overpayments to providers from three to five years. These new laws may result in additional reductions in Medicare and other healthcare funding, which could have a material adverse effect on customers for our drugs, if approved, and, accordingly, our financial operations.

Current and future healthcare reform measures may result in more rigorous coverage criteria and in additional downward pressure on the price that we receive for any approved drug. Any reduction in reimbursement from Medicare or other government-funded programs may result in a similar reduction in payments from private payors. There has been increasing legislative and enforcement interest in the United States with respect to specialty drug pricing practices.  Specifically, there have been several recent U.S. Congressional inquiries and proposed bills designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to drug pricing, review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs, and reform government program reimbursement methodologies for drugs. At the federal level, the Trump administration’s budget proposal for fiscal year 2020 contained further drug price control measures that could be enacted during the budget process or in other future legislation. Further, the Trump administration released a “Blueprint” to lower drug prices and reduce out of pocket costs of drugs that contains additional proposals to increase drug manufacturer competition, increase the negotiating power of certain federal healthcare programs, incentivize manufacturers to lower the list price of their products, and reduce the out of pocket costs of drug products paid by consumers. The Department of Health and Human Services, or HHS, has solicited feedback on some of these measures and has implemented others under its existing authority. While some of these and other measures may require additional authorization to become effective,  Congress and the Trump administration have each indicated that it will continue to seek new legislative and/or administrative measures to control drug costs. At the state level, legislatures are increasingly passing legislation and implementing regulations designed to control pharmaceutical and biological product pricing. The implementation of cost containment measures or other healthcare reforms may prevent us from being able to generate revenue, attain profitability or commercialize our drugs.

Legislative and regulatory proposals have been made to expand post-approval requirements and restrict sales and promotional activities for drugs. We cannot be sure whether additional legislative changes will be enacted, or whether the FDA regulations, guidance or interpretations will be changed, or what the impact of such changes on the marketing approvals of our drug candidates, if any, may be. In addition, increased scrutiny by the U.S. Congress of the FDA’s approval process may significantly delay or prevent marketing approval, as well as subject us to more stringent product labeling and post-marketing testing and other requirements.

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Governments outside the United States tend to impose strict price controls, which may adversely affect our revenue, if any.

In some countries, particularly in the EU, the pricing of prescription pharmaceuticals is subject to governmental control. In these countries, pricing negotiations with governmental authorities can take considerable time after the receipt of marketing approval for a drug. To obtain coverage and reimbursement or pricing approval in some countries, we may be required to conduct a clinical trial that compares the cost-effectiveness of our drug candidate to other available therapies. If reimbursement of our drugs is unavailable or limited in scope or amount, or if pricing is set at unsatisfactory levels, our business could be harmed, possibly materially.

If we fail to comply with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, we could become subject to fines or penalties or incur costs that could harm our business.

We are subject to numerous environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, including those governing laboratory procedures and the handling, use, storage, treatment and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes. Our operations involve the use of hazardous and flammable materials, including chemicals and biological materials. Our operations also produce hazardous waste products. We generally contract with third parties for the disposal of these materials and wastes. We cannot eliminate the risk of contamination or injury from these materials. In the event of contamination or injury resulting from our use of hazardous materials, we could be held liable for any resulting damages, and any liability could exceed our resources. We also could incur significant costs associated with civil or criminal fines and penalties for failure to comply with such laws and regulations.

Although we maintain workers’ compensation insurance to cover us for costs and expenses we may incur due to injuries to our employees resulting from the use of hazardous materials, this insurance may not provide adequate coverage against potential liabilities. We do not maintain insurance for environmental liability or toxic tort claims that may be asserted against us in connection with our storage or disposal of biological, hazardous or radioactive materials.

In addition, we may incur substantial costs in order to comply with current or future environmental, health and safety laws and regulations. These current or future laws and regulations may impair our research, development or production efforts. Our failure to comply with these laws and regulations also may result in substantial fines, penalties or other sanctions.

Risks Related to Employee Matters and Managing Our Growth

Our future success depends on our ability to retain key executives and to attract, retain and motivate qualified personnel.

We are highly dependent on the management, research and development, clinical, financial and business development expertise of Rachel King, our President and Chief Executive Officer; John Magnani, our Senior Vice President of Research and Chief Scientific Officer; Helen Thackray, our Senior Vice President of Clinical Development and Chief Medical Officer; Armand Girard, our Senior Vice President and Chief Business Officer; and Brian Hahn, our Senior Vice President of Finance and Chief Financial Officer, as well as the other members of our scientific and clinical teams. In particular, we are dependent upon Dr. Magnani for key expertise in carbohydrate chemistry and knowledge of carbohydrate biology with respect to our glycomimetics platform, and the loss of his services would materially impair our future drug discovery efforts. Although we have entered into employment agreements with our executive officers, each of them may currently terminate their employment with us at any time. We do not maintain “key person” insurance for any of our executives or employees.

Recruiting and retaining qualified scientific and clinical personnel and, if we progress the development of our drug pipeline toward scaling up for commercialization, sales and marketing personnel, will also be critical to our success. The loss of the services of our executive officers or other key employees could impede the achievement of our research, development and commercialization objectives and seriously harm our ability to successfully implement our business strategy. Furthermore, replacing executive officers and key employees may be difficult and may take an extended period of time because of the limited number of individuals in our industry with the breadth of skills and experience required to successfully develop, gain regulatory approval for and commercialize our drug candidates. Competition to hire qualified personnel in our industry is intense, and we may be unable to hire, train, retain or motivate these key personnel on acceptable terms given the competition among numerous pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies for similar

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personnel. We also experience competition for the hiring of scientific and clinical personnel from universities and research institutions. In addition, we rely on consultants and advisors, including scientific and clinical advisors, to assist us in formulating our research and development and commercialization strategy. Our consultants and advisors may have commitments under consulting or advisory contracts with other entities that may limit their availability to us. If we are unable to continue to attract and retain high quality personnel, our ability to pursue our growth strategy will be limited.

We expect to expand our development and regulatory capabilities and potentially implement sales, marketing and distribution capabilities, and as a result, we may encounter difficulties in managing our growth, which could disrupt our operations.

As our development progresses, we expect to experience significant growth in the number of our employees and the scope of our operations, particularly in the areas of research, drug development, regulatory affairs and, if any of our drug candidates receives marketing approval, sales, marketing and distribution. To manage our anticipated future growth, we must continue to implement and improve our managerial, operational and financial systems, expand our facilities and continue to recruit and train additional qualified personnel. Due to our limited financial resources and the limited experience of our management team in managing a company with such anticipated growth, we may not be able to effectively manage the expansion of our operations or recruit and train additional qualified personnel. The expansion of our operations may lead to significant costs and may divert our management and business development resources. Any inability to manage growth could delay the execution of our business plans or disrupt our operations.

Our employees and employees of our collaborators may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, including non-compliance with regulatory standards and requirements.

We and our collaborators are exposed to the risk of employee fraud or other misconduct. Misconduct by employees could include intentional failures to comply with the FDA regulations, to provide accurate information to the FDA, to comply with manufacturing standards we have established, to comply with federal and state healthcare fraud and abuse laws and regulations, to report financial information or data accurately or to disclose unauthorized activities to us. In particular, sales, marketing and business arrangements in the healthcare industry are subject to extensive laws and regulations intended to prevent fraud, kickbacks, self-dealing and other abusive practices. These laws and regulations may restrict or prohibit a wide range of pricing, discounting, marketing and promotion, sales commission, customer incentive programs and other business arrangements. Employee misconduct could also involve the improper use of individually identifiable information, including, without limitation, information obtained in the course of clinical trials, which could result in regulatory sanctions and serious harm to our reputation. We have adopted a code of business conduct and ethics, but it is not always possible to identify and deter employee misconduct, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent improper activities may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses or in protecting us from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to be in compliance with such laws or regulations. If any such actions are instituted against us, and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, or any such actions are instituted against any of our collaborators, those actions could have a significant impact on our business, including the imposition of significant fines or other sanctions and diminished royalties.

Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock

An active trading market for our common stock may not be sustained.

Although our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Market, we cannot assure you that an active trading market for our shares will be sustained. If an active market for our common stock is not sustained, it may be difficult for investors in our common stock to sell shares without depressing the market price for the shares or to sell the shares at all.

The trading price of our common stock has been and is likely to continue to be volatile.

Since our IPO in January 2014, our stock price has been volatile. The stock market in general and the market for biopharmaceutical companies in particular have experienced extreme volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. As a result of this volatility, investors may not be able to sell their

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common stock at or above the price paid for the shares. The market price for our common stock may be influenced by many factors, including:

·

announcements relating to development, regulatory approvals or commercialization of our drug candidates;

·

actual or anticipated variations in our operating results;

·

changes in financial estimates by us or by any securities analysts who might cover our stock;

·

conditions or trends in our industry;

·

changes in laws or other regulatory actions affecting us or our industry, such as drug pricing and reimbursement;

·

stock market price and volume fluctuations of comparable companies and, in particular, those that operate in the biopharmaceutical industry;

·

announcements by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships or divestitures;

·

announcements of investigations or regulatory scrutiny of our operations or lawsuits filed against us;

·

capital commitments;

·

investors’ general perception of our company and our business;

·

disputes concerning our intellectual property or other proprietary rights;

·

recruitment or departure of key personnel; and

·

sales of our common stock, including sales by our directors and officers or specific stockholders.

In addition, in the past, stockholders have initiated class action lawsuits against pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies following periods of volatility in the market prices of these companies’ stock. Such litigation, if instituted against us, could cause us to incur substantial costs and divert management’s attention and resources from our business.

If equity research analysts do not publish research or reports, or publish unfavorable research or reports, about us, our business or our market, our stock price and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our common stock is influenced by the research and reports that equity research analysts publish about us and our business. We have only limited research coverage by equity research analysts. Equity research analysts may elect not to initiate or continue to provide research coverage of our common stock, and such lack of research coverage may adversely affect the market price of our common stock. Even if we have equity research analyst coverage, we will not have any control over the analysts or the content and opinions included in their reports. The price of our stock could decline if one or more equity research analysts downgrade our stock or issue other unfavorable commentary or research. If one or more equity research analysts ceases coverage of our company or fails to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our stock could decrease, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.

The issuance of additional stock in connection with financings, acquisitions, investments, our stock incentive plan, our employee stock purchase plan or otherwise will dilute all other stockholders.

Our certificate of incorporation authorizes us to issue up to 100,000,000 shares of common stock and up to 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock with such rights and preferences as may be determined by our board of directors. Subject to compliance with applicable rules and regulations, we may issue our shares of common stock or securities convertible into our common stock from time to time in connection with a financing, acquisition, investment, our stock incentive plan, our employee stock purchase plan or otherwise. Any such issuance could result in substantial dilution to our existing stockholders and cause the trading price of our common stock to decline.

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If a substantial number of our total outstanding shares are sold into the market, or if the market perceives that such sales may occur, it could cause the market price of our common stock to drop significantly, even if our business is doing well.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market could occur at any time. If our stockholders sell, or if the market perceives that our stockholders intend to sell, substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market, the market price of our common stock could decline significantly. All of our outstanding shares of common stock are available for sale in the public market, subject only to the restrictions of Rule 144 under the Securities Act in the case of our affiliates.

In addition, we have filed registration statements on Form S-8 registering the issuance of shares of common stock subject to options or other equity awards issued or reserved for future issuance under our equity incentive plans. Shares registered under these registration statements are available for sale in the public market subject to vesting arrangements and exercise of options, as well as Rule 144 in the case of our affiliates.

Additionally, some of the holders of our common stock who acquired their shares of our stock prior to the IPO, or their transferees, have rights, subject to some conditions, to require us to file one or more registration statements covering their shares or to include their shares in registration statements that we may file for ourselves or other stockholders. If we were to register the resale of these shares, they could be freely sold in the public market. If these additional shares are sold, or if it is perceived that they will be sold, in the public market, the trading price of our common stock could decline.

 

Provisions in our corporate charter documents and under Delaware law may prevent or frustrate attempts by our stockholders to change our management and hinder efforts to acquire a controlling interest in us, and the market price of our common stock may be lower as a result.

There are provisions in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws that may make it difficult for a third party to acquire, or attempt to acquire, control of our company, even if a change in control was considered favorable by some or all of our stockholders. For example, our board of directors has the authority to issue up to 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock. The board of directors can fix the price, rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions of the preferred stock without any further vote or action by our stockholders. The issuance of shares of preferred stock may delay or prevent a change in control transaction. As a result, the market price of our common stock and the voting and other rights of our stockholders may be adversely affected. An issuance of shares of preferred stock may result in the loss of voting control to other stockholders.

Our charter documents also contain other provisions that could have an anti-takeover effect, including:

·

only one of our three classes of directors is elected each year;

·

stockholders are not entitled to remove directors other than by a 66 2/3% vote and only for cause;

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stockholders are not permitted to take actions by written consent;

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stockholders cannot call a special meeting of stockholders; and

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stockholders must give advance notice to nominate directors or submit proposals for consideration at stockholder meetings.

In addition, we are subject to the anti-takeover provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which regulates corporate acquisitions by prohibiting Delaware corporations from engaging in specified business combinations with particular stockholders of those companies. These provisions could discourage potential acquisition proposals and could delay or prevent a change in control transaction. They could also have the effect of discouraging others from making tender offers for our common stock, including transactions that may be in your best interests. These provisions may also prevent changes in our management or limit the price that investors are willing to pay for our stock.

Our certificate of incorporation also provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the exclusive forum for substantially all disputes between us and our stockholders.

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Concentration of ownership of our common stock among our existing executive officers, directors and principal stockholders may prevent new investors from influencing significant corporate decisions.

Our executive officers, directors and current beneficial owners of 5% or more of our common stock and their respective affiliates beneficially own a majority of our common stock. Further, funds controlled by one investor, New Enterprise Associates, or NEA, beneficially own approximately 21% of our common stock. As a result, NEA is able to significantly influence matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election and removal of directors, any merger, consolidation, sale of all or substantially all of our assets or other significant corporate transactions. The interests of this group of stockholders may not coincide with our interests or the interests of other stockholders.

If we fail to maintain proper and effective internal controls, our ability to produce accurate financial statements on a timely basis could be impaired.

We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 and the rules and regulations of The Nasdaq Global Market. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting and perform system and process evaluation and testing of our internal control over financial reporting to allow management to report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, which must then be evaluated by our independent registered public accounting firm. This requires that we incur substantial additional professional fees and internal costs to expand our accounting and finance functions and that we expend significant management efforts.

We may in the future discover areas of our internal financial and accounting controls and procedures that need improvement. Our internal control over financial reporting will not prevent or detect all errors and all fraud. A control system, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the control system’s objectives will be met. Because of the inherent limitations in all control systems, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that misstatements due to error or fraud will not occur or that all control issues and instances of fraud will be detected.

If we are unable to maintain proper and effective internal controls in the future, we may not be able to produce timely and accurate financial statements, and we may conclude that our internal controls over financial reporting are not effective. If that were to happen, the market price of our stock could decline and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by Nasdaq, the SEC or other regulatory authorities.

We do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future and our stock may not appreciate in value.

We have not declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock to date. We currently intend to retain our future earnings, if any, to fund the development and growth of our business. In addition, the terms of any future debt agreements may preclude us from paying dividends. There is no guarantee that shares of our common stock will appreciate in value or that the price at which our stockholders have purchased their shares will be able to be maintained.

We incur increased costs and demands upon management as a result of being a public company.

As a public company listed in the United States, we incur, and will continue to incur now that we have ceased to be an “emerging growth company,” significant legal, accounting and other costs. These costs could negatively affect our financial results. In addition, changing laws, regulations and standards relating to corporate governance and public disclosure, including regulations implemented by the SEC and Nasdaq, may increase legal and financial compliance costs and make some activities more time-consuming. These laws, regulations and standards are subject to varying interpretations and, as a result, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance is provided by regulatory and governing bodies.

We intend to invest resources to comply with evolving laws, regulations and standards, and this investment may result in increased general and administrative expenses and a diversion of management’s time and attention from revenue-generating activities to compliance activities. If we do not comply with new laws, regulations and standards, regulatory authorities may initiate legal proceedings against us and our business may be harmed.

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Failure to comply with these rules might also make it more difficult for us to obtain some types of insurance, including director and officer liability insurance, and we might be forced to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. The impact of these events could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on our board of directors, on committees of our board of directors or as members of senior management.

 

ITEM  1B.UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS  

None.

ITEM 2.PROPERTIES  

Our principal offices occupy approximately 42,000 square feet of leased office space in Rockville, Maryland, pursuant to a lease agreement that expires in October 2023. We believe that our properties are generally in good condition, well maintained, suitable and adequate to carry on our business. We believe our capital resources are sufficient to lease any additional facilities required to meet our expected growth needs.

ITEM  3.LEGAL PROCEEDINGS  

From time to time, we are subject to litigation and claims arising in the ordinary course of business. We are not currently a party to any material legal proceedings and we are not aware of any pending or threatened legal proceeding against us that we believe could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, cash flows or financial condition.

ITEM  4.MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES  

Not applicable.

PART II

ITEM  5.MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Market Information for Common Stock

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “GLYC.” 

Dividend Policy

We have never declared or paid any dividends on our common stock. We anticipate that we will retain all of our future earnings, if any, for use in the operation and expansion of our business and do not anticipate paying cash dividends in the foreseeable future.

Stockholders

As of February 26, 2020, we had 43,582,979 shares of common stock outstanding held by 25 holders of record. The actual number of stockholders is greater than this number of record holders and includes stockholders who are beneficial owners but whose shares are held in street name by brokers and other nominees. This number of holders of record also does not include stockholders whose shares may be held in trust by other entities.

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Performance Graph

The following graph compares the five-year cumulative total return of our common stock with the Nasdaq Composite Index (U.S.) and the Nasdaq Biotechnology Index.  The comparison assumes a $100 investment on December 31, 2014 in our common stock, the stocks comprising the Nasdaq Composite Index, and the stocks comprising the Nasdaq Biotechnology Index, and assumes reinvestment of the full amount of all dividends, if any.  Historical stockholder return is not necessarily indicative of the performance to be expected for any future periods.

Comparison of Cumulative Total Return

Among GlycoMimetics, Inc., the Nasdaq Composite Index and the Nasdaq Biotechnology Index

 

Picture 2

 

The performance graph shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference by means of any general statement incorporating by reference this Form 10-K into any filing under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended or the Exchange Act, except to the extent that we specifically incorporate such information by reference, and shall not otherwise be deemed filed under such acts.

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

None.

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Parties

None.

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ITEM  6.SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA  

The following selected financial data as of and for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016 and 2015 are derived from our audited financial statements, which have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm. The statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015, and the balance sheet data as of December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, have been derived from our audited financial statements which are not included herein. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected in the future. The selected financial data should be read together with Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and in conjunction with the financial statements, related notes, and other financial information included elsewhere in this Annual Report. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31, 

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

2019

 

2018

 

2017

 

2016

 

2015

Statement of Operations Data:

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

Revenue

 

$

 —

 

$

 —

 

$

 —

 

$

18

 

$

20,071

Costs and expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development expense

 

 

47,029

 

 

40,092

 

 

24,100

 

 

23,282

 

 

25,050

General and administrative expense

 

 

14,360

 

 

11,413

 

 

9,832

 

 

8,650

 

 

7,805

Total costs and expenses

 

 

61,389

 

 

51,505

 

 

33,932

 

 

31,932

 

 

32,855

Loss from operations

 

 

(61,389)

 

 

(51,505)

 

 

(33,932)

 

 

(31,914)

 

 

(12,784)

Other income

 

 

3,497

 

 

3,231

 

 

651

 

 

104

 

 

15

Net loss and comprehensive loss

 

$

(57,892)

 

$

(48,274)

 

$

(33,281)

 

$

(31,810)

 

$

(12,769)

Net loss per share of common stock—basic and diluted

 

$

(1.34)

 

$

(1.18)

 

$

(1.13)

 

$

(1.50)

 

$

(0.67)

Weighted average common shares outstanding, basic and diluted

 

 

43,254,782

 

 

41,044,621

 

 

29,395,756

 

 

21,256,312

 

 

19,010,587

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

As of December 31, 

(in thousands)

 

2019

 

2018

 

2017

 

2016

 

2015

Balance Sheet Data:

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

158,201

 

$

209,918

 

$

123,925

 

$

40,042

 

$

46,803

Total assets

 

 

167,970

 

 

214,839

 

 

128,583

 

 

42,388

 

 

48,462

Total liabilities

 

 

13,769

 

 

9,375

 

 

8,882

 

 

7,087

 

 

7,991

Total stockholders’ equity

 

 

154,201

 

 

205,464

 

 

119,701

 

 

35,301

 

 

40,472

 

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ITEM 7.MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes and other financial information included elsewhere in this Annual Report. Some of the information contained in this discussion and analysis or set forth elsewhere in this Annual Report, including information with respect to our plans and strategy for our business, includes forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. You should review Item 1A. “Risk Factors” and “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” in this Annual Report for a discussion of important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the results described in or implied by the forward-looking statements contained in the following discussion and analysis. 

 

For the discussion of our financial condition and results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the year ended December 31, 2017, please refer to Part II, Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 filed with the SEC on March 6, 2019.

Overview

 

We are a clinical-stage biotechnology company focused on the discovery and development of novel glycomimetic drugs to address unmet medical needs resulting from diseases in which carbohydrate biology plays a key role. We are developing a pipeline of glycomimetics, which are molecules that mimic the structure of carbohydrates involved in important biological processes,  to inhibit disease-related functions of carbohydrates such as the roles they play in inflammation, cancer and infection. We believe this represents an innovative approach to drug discovery to treat a wide range of diseases. We are focusing our efforts on drug candidates for rare diseases that we believe will qualify for orphan drug designation.

 

Our proprietary glycomimetics platform is based on our expertise in carbohydrate chemistry and our understanding of the role carbohydrates play in key biological processes. Most human proteins are modified by the addition of complex carbohydrate structures to the surface of such proteins, which affects the functions of the proteins and their interactions with other molecules. Our initial research and development efforts have focused on drug candidates targeting selectins, which are proteins that serve as adhesion molecules and bind to carbohydrates that are involved in the inflammatory component and progression of a wide range of diseases, including hematologic disorders, cancer and cardiovascular disease. For example, we believe that members of the selectin family play a key role in tumor metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy. Inhibiting specific carbohydrates from binding to selectins has long been viewed as a potentially attractive approach for therapeutic intervention. The ability to successfully develop drug-like compounds that inhibit binding with selectins, known as selectin antagonists, has historically been limited by the complexities of carbohydrate chemistry. We believe our expertise in carbohydrate chemistry enables us to design selectin antagonists and other glycomimetics that may inhibit the disease-related functions of certain carbohydrates in order to develop novel drug candidates to address orphan diseases with high unmet medical need.

 

Our lead glycomimetic drug candidate, uproleselan, is a specific E-selectin inhibitor that we are developing to be used in combination with chemotherapy to treat patients with acute myeloid leukemia, or AML, a life-threatening hematologic cancer, and potentially other hematologic cancers. We completed an initial Phase 1 trial in healthy volunteers for uproleselan, and in May 2017 we completed enrollment in a Phase 1/2 clinical trial in patients with either relapsed/refractory or de novo/secondary AML.  In December 2018, at the annual meeting of the American Society of Hematology, or ASH, we presented clinical data from this Phase 1/2 clinical trial that showed high remission rates, improved overall survival and improved event-free survival, all compared to historical controls derived from third-party clinical trials evaluating treatment with standard chemotherapy.

 

In March 2018, we announced our design for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase 3 clinical trial to evaluate uproleselan in individuals with relapsed/refractory AML, which design is aligned with guidance received from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA. Based on consultations with the FDA, the single pivotal trial is planned to enroll approximately 380 adult patients with relapsed or refractory AML at centers in the United States, Canada, Europe and Australia. We dosed the first patient in this trial in November 2018. The primary efficacy endpoint

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will be overall survival; importantly, the FDA has advised us that data on overall survival will not need to be censored for transplant in the primary efficacy analysis, meaning that patients who proceed to transplant will continue to be included as part of the survival analysis. All patients will be treated with standard chemotherapy of either MEC (mitoxantrone, etoposide and cytarabine) or FAI (fludarabine, cytarabine and idarubicin), with approximately one-half of the patients randomized to receive uproleselan in addition to chemotherapy. Patients receiving uproleselan will be dosed for one day prior to initiation of chemotherapy, twice a day through the chemotherapy regimen, and then for two days after the end of chemotherapy, which was the same regimen as in the Phase 1/2 trial. The dose regimen will be fixed, rather than weight-based, which we believe will simplify administration. We plan to offer up to three cycles of consolidation therapy in both arms of the trial for patients who achieve remission. We believe that multiple cycles of treatment in patients who respond may drive an even deeper response in patients treated with uproleselan. If this is the case, it could lengthen the duration of remission with potential for additional benefit on survival. Key secondary endpoints of the Phase 3 trial will include the incidence of severe mucositis and remission rate, which will be assessed in a hierarchical fashion which may provide supportive data. We expect to complete enrollment of the trial in the second half of 2021.

 

Uproleselan received orphan drug designation from the FDA in May 2015 for the treatment of patients with AML. In June 2016, uproleselan received fast track designation from the FDA for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory AML and elderly patients aged 60 years or older with AML. In May 2017, uproleselan received Breakthrough Therapy designation from the FDA for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory AML. In May 2017, the European Commission, based on a favorable recommendation from the EMA Committee for Orphan Medicinal Products, granted orphan designation for uproleselan for the treatment of patients with AML. In June 2018, we received a response from the EMA to our request for scientific advice with respect to our Marketing Authorization Application, or MAA, development plan. Based on this guidance, we are conducting the global Phase 3 clinical trial and intend to pursue regulatory approval of uproleselan for the treatment of AML.

 

In May 2018, we signed a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement, or CRADA, with the National Cancer Institute, or NCI, part of the National Institutes of Health. Under the terms of the CRADA, we will collaborate with both the NCI and the Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology to conduct a Phase 2/3 randomized, controlled clinical trial testing the addition of uproleselan to a standard cytarabine/daunorubicin chemotherapy regimen (7&3) in older adults with previously untreated AML who are suitable for intensive chemotherapy. The primary endpoint will be overall survival, which is defined as the time from the date of randomization to death from any cause, with a planned interim analysis based on event-free survival after the first 250 patients have been enrolled in the trial. The full trial is expected to enroll approximately 670 patients.  Under the terms of the CRADA, the NCI may also fund additional research, including clinical trials involving pediatric patients with AML as well as preclinical experiments and clinical trials evaluating alternative populations and chemotherapy regimens. We will supply uproleselan as well as provide financial support to augment data analysis and monitoring for the Phase 3 program. The trial opened for enrollment in early 2019 and enrolled the first patient in April 2019.

 

As a potential life-cycle extension to uproleselan, our scientists have rationally designed an innovative antagonist of E-selectin, GMI-1687, that could be suitable for subcutaneous administration. When given by subcutaneous injection in animal models, GMI-1687 has been observed to have equivalent activity to uproleselan, but at an approximately 1,000-fold lower dose. We believe that GMI-1687 could be developed to broaden the clinical usefulness of an E-selectin antagonist to conditions where outpatient treatment is preferred or required. We are currently conducting studies with GMI-1687 to support our planned submission of an investigational new drug application, or IND, to the FDA.

 

We are developing an additional drug candidate, GMI-1359, that simultaneously targets both E-selectin and a chemokine receptor known as CXCR4. Since E-selectin and CXCR4 are implicated in the retention of cancer cells in the bone and bone marrow, we believe that targeting both E-selectin and CXCR4 with a single compound could improve efficacy in the treatment of cancers that affect the bone and bone marrow, particularly solid tumors that have a propensity to metastasize to bone, such as breast and prostate cancer. We completed a Phase 1 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose escalation trial of GMI-1359 in healthy volunteers. In this trial, volunteer participants received a single injection of either GMI-1359 or placebo, after which they were evaluated for safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics, or PK. This trial was conducted at a single site in the United States. GMI-1359 was generally well tolerated in this trial, with no participants experiencing serious adverse events. In the fourth quarter of 2019, we initiated a Phase 1b trial of GMI-1359 in hormone receptor positive breast cancer patients whose tumors have spread to bone, and the first patient was dosed in January 2020. The trial is being conducted at Duke University and will evaluate dose

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escalation as well as safety, PK and pharmacodynamics markers of biologic activity in these patients.  In January 2020, the FDA granted GMI-1359 orphan drug designation and rare pediatric disease designation for the treatment of osteosarcoma, a rare cancer affecting approximately 900 adolescents each year in the United States. These designations are expected to make GMI-1359 eligible for priority review by the FDA.

 

In addition to our programs described above, we are also advancing other preclinical-stage programs. These programs include small-molecule glycomimetic compounds that inhibit the protein galectin-3, which we believe may have potential to be used for the treatment of fibrosis, cancer and cardiovascular disease.

 

We previously developed another glycomimetic drug candidate, rivipansel, a pan-selectin antagonist for the potential treatment of vaso-occlusive crisis, a debilitating and painful condition that occurs periodically throughout the life of a person with sickle cell disease, or SCD.  Rivipansel received fast track designation from the FDA as well as orphan drug designation from the FDA in the United States and from the European Medicines Agency, or EMA, in the European Union.  We entered into an exclusive license agreement with Pfizer Inc., or the Pfizer Agreement, for Pfizer to further develop, obtain regulatory approval and potentially commercialize rivipansel worldwide. Pfizer conducted a pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of rivipansel in patients aged six and older with SCD who were hospitalized for a vaso-occlusive crisis and required treatment with intravenous opioids. The clinical trial did not meet its primary or key secondary efficacy endpoints. We will work with Pfizer to effectuate any necessary transition activities in connection with the Pfizer Agreement, and will be determining what, if any, next steps to take with respect to the rivipansel program after reviewing the Phase 3 data more completely.

 

We commenced operations in 2003, and our operations to date have been limited to organizing and staffing our company, business planning, raising capital, developing our glycomimetics platform, identifying potential drug candidates, undertaking preclinical studies and conducting, both alone and in collaboration with third parties, clinical trials of uproleselan, GMI-1359 and rivipansel. To date, we have financed our operations primarily through private placements of our securities, up-front and milestone payments under our license and collaboration agreements and the net proceeds from public offerings of common stock, including sales of common stock under at-the-market sales facilities with Cowen and Company LLC, or Cowen. We have no approved drugs currently available for sale, and substantially all of our revenue to date has been revenue from up-front and milestone payments, although we have received nominal amounts of revenue under research grants.

 

Since inception, we have incurred significant operating losses. We had an accumulated deficit of $258.4 million as of December 31, 2019, and we expect to continue to incur significant expenses and operating losses over at least the next several years. Our net losses may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter and year to year, depending on the timing of our clinical trials and our expenditures on other research and development activities. We anticipate that our expenses will increase substantially as we:

·

initiate and conduct our planned clinical trials of uproleselan, GMI-1359 and GMI-1687, including fulfilling our funding and supply commitments related to the clinical trial of uproleselan being conducted in collaboration with NCI;

·

further NDA-enabling activities related to manufacture, toxicology and clinical pharmacology;

·

manufacture additional uproleselan drug supplies for validation and prepare for commercialization;

·

seek to discover and develop additional drug candidates;

·

seek regulatory approvals for any drug candidates that successfully complete clinical trials;

·

ultimately establish a sales, marketing and distribution infrastructure and scale up external manufacturing capabilities to commercialize any drug candidates for which we may obtain regulatory approval;

·

maintain, expand and protect our intellectual property portfolio;

·

hire additional clinical, quality control, regulatory and scientific personnel; and

·

add operational, financial and management information systems and personnel, including personnel to support our drug development and potential future commercialization efforts.

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To fund further operations, we will need to raise capital. We may obtain additional financing in the future through the issuance of our common stock, through other equity or debt financings, potentially including the use of our at-the-market sales facility with Cowen, or through collaborations or partnerships with other companies. We may not be able to raise additional capital on terms acceptable to us, or at all, and any failure to raise capital as and when needed could compromise our ability to execute on our business plan. Although it is difficult to predict future liquidity requirements, we believe that our existing cash and cash equivalents will be sufficient to fund our operations into 2022. However, our ability to successfully transition to profitability will be dependent upon achieving a level of revenues adequate to support our cost structure. We cannot assure you that we will ever be profitable or generate positive cash flow from operating activities.

Our Collaboration and License Agreements

In January 2020, we entered into an exclusive collaboration and license agreement with Apollomics (Hong Kong) Limited, or Apollomics, for the development and commercialization of uproleselan and GMI-1687 in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan, also known as Greater China. Under the terms of the agreement, Apollomics will be responsible for clinical development and commercialization in Greater China. We will also collaborate with Apollomics to advance the preclinical and clinical development of GMI-1687. We received an upfront cash payment of $9.0 million and, subject to the terms of the agreement, will be eligible to receive potential milestone payments totaling approximately $180.0 million, as well as tiered royalties ranging from the high single digits to 15%, as a percentage of net sales. Apollomics will be responsible for all costs related to development, regulatory approvals, and commercialization activities for uproleselan and GMI-1687 in Greater China, and we and Apollomics expect to enter into clinical and commercial supply agreements with respect to our provision of uproleselan and GMI-1687 to Apollomics. We retain all rights for both compounds in the rest of the world.

In October 2011, we entered into the Pfizer Agreement, under which we granted Pfizer an exclusive worldwide license to develop and commercialize products containing rivipansel for all fields and uses. Pfizer was required to use commercially reasonable efforts, at its expense, to develop, obtain regulatory approval for and commercialize rivipansel for SCD in the United States. On August 2, 2019, Pfizer announced that its pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of rivipansel in patients aged six and older with SCD who were hospitalized for a vaso-occlusive crisis and required treatment with intravenous opioids did not meet its primary or key secondary efficacy endpoints. On February 5, 2020, Pfizer delivered notice to us of its termination of the Pfizer Agreement, which termination will be effective as of April 5, 2020. Following the effective date of the termination of the Pfizer Agreement, we will retain all rights to the potential future development and commercialization of rivipansel. We did not earn any revenue or receive any payments from Pfizer during the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017 and will not be eligible to receive any future payments from Pfizer following the termination of the Pfizer Agreement. 

We have entered into a research services agreement, or the Research Agreement, with the University of Basel, or the University, for biological evaluation of selectin antagonists. While the scope of work under the Research Agreement ended in 2017, certain patents covering the rivipansel compound are subject to provisions of the Research Agreement. Under the terms of the Research Agreement, we owed the University 10% of any milestone and royalty payments received from Pfizer with respect to rivipansel. There were no payments due to the University for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 or 2017, and as a result of the termination of the Pfizer Agreement, we do not expect to make any future payments to the University.

Critical Accounting Policies and Significant Judgments and Estimates

Our management’s discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based on our financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, or GAAP. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates, judgments and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the dates of the balance sheets and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting periods. In accordance with GAAP, we base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances at the time such estimates are made. Actual results may differ materially from our estimates and judgments under different assumptions or conditions. We periodically review our estimates in light of changes in circumstances, facts and experience. The effects of material revisions in estimates are reflected in our financial statements prospectively from the date of the change in estimate.

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We define our critical accounting policies as those accounting principles generally accepted in the United States that require us to make subjective estimates and judgments about matters that are uncertain and are likely to have a material impact on our financial condition and results of operations, as well as the specific manner in which we apply those principles. While our significant accounting policies are more fully described in Note 2 to our financial statements appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report, we believe the following are the critical accounting policies used in the preparation of our financial statements that require significant judgments and estimates.

 

Revenue Recognition

 

Effective January 1, 2018, we adopted Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers.  This standard applies to all contracts with customers, except for contracts that are within the scope of other standards, such as leases, insurance, collaboration agreements and financial instruments. Under Topic 606, an entity recognizes revenue when its customer obtains control of promised goods and services, in an amount that reflects the consideration which the entity expects to receive in exchange for those goods and services. To determine revenue recognition for arrangements that an entity determines is within the scope of Topic 606, we perform the following five steps: (i) identify the contract(s) with the customer; (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligation in the contract; and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) we satisfy a performance obligation. We only apply the five-step model to contracts when it is probable that we will collect the consideration we are entitled to in exchange for the goods or services we transfer to the customer. At contract inception, once the contract is determined to be within the scope of Topic 606, we assess the goods or services promised within each contract and identify, as a performance obligation, and assess whether each promised good or service is distinct. We then recognize as revenue the amount of the transaction price that is allocated to the respective performance obligation when (or as) the performance obligation is satisfied.

 

We enter into licensing agreements which are within the scope of Topic 606, under which we license certain of our product candidates’ rights to third parties.  The terms of these arrangements typically include payment of one or more of the following: non-refundable, up-front license fees; development, regulatory and commercial milestone payments; and royalties on net sales of the licensed product. In determining the appropriate amount of revenue to be recognized as we fulfill our obligation under our agreements, we perform the five steps described above. As part of the accounting for these arrangements, we must develop assumptions that require judgment to determine the stand-alone selling price, which may include forecasted revenues, development timelines, reimbursement of personnel costs, discount rates and probabilities of technical and regulatory success.

 

Licensing of Intellectual Property: If the license to our intellectual property is determined to be distinct from the other performance obligations identified in the arrangement, we will recognize revenue from non-refundable, up-front fees allocated to the license when the license is transferred to the licensee and the licensee is able to use and benefit from the license.  For licenses that are bundled with other promises, we utilize judgment to assess the nature of the combined performance obligation to determine whether the combined performance obligation is satisfied over time or at a point in time and, if over time, the appropriate method of measuring progress for purposes of recognizing revenue from non-refundable, up-front-fees. We evaluate the measure of progress each reporting period, and, if necessary, adjust the measure of performance and related revenue recognition.

 

Milestone Payments: At the inception of each arrangement that includes development milestone payments, we evaluate whether the milestones are considered probable of being reached and estimate the amount to be included in the transaction price using the most likely amount method.  If it is probable that a significant revenue reversal will not occur, the associated milestone value is included in the transaction price. Milestone payments that are not within our control or the licensee’s control, such as regulatory approvals, are not considered probable of being achieved until those approvals are received. The transaction price is then allocated to each performance obligation on a relative stand-alone selling price basis, for which we recognize revenue as or when the performance obligations under the contract are satisfied. At the end of each subsequent reporting period, we re-evaluate the probability of achievement of such development milestones and any related constraint, and if necessary, adjust our estimate of the overall transaction price.  Any such adjustments are recorded on a cumulative catch-up basis, which would affect license, collaboration and other revenues and earnings in their period of adjustment.

 

Royalties: For arrangements that include sales-based royalties, including milestone payments based on the level of sales, for which the license is deemed to be the predominant item to which royalties relate, we recognize revenue at the

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later of (i) when the related sales occur, or (ii) when the performance obligation to which some of all of the royalty has been allocated has been satisfied (or partially satisfied). To date, we have not recognized any royalty revenue from our license agreements.

 

Stock-Based Compensation

We issue stock-based compensation awards to our employees and non-employee directors, including stock options. We measure stock-based compensation expense related to these awards based on the fair value of the award on the date of grant and recognize stock-based compensation expense on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period of the awards, which generally equals the vesting period. We grant stock options with exercise prices equal to the estimated fair value of our common stock on the date of grant. Effective on January 1, 2017 with the adoption of Accounting Standards Update, or ASU, No. 2016-09, we account for forfeitures as they occur. We have selected the Black-Scholes-Merton option pricing model to determine the fair value of stock option awards, which requires the input of various assumptions that require management to apply judgment and make assumptions and estimates, including:

Risk-Free Interest Rate—The risk-free interest rate assumption is based on observed interest rates for constant maturity U.S. Treasury securities consistent with the expected life of our employee stock options.

Expected Term—The expected life represents the period of time the stock options are expected to be outstanding and is based on the simplified method. Under the simplified method, the expected life of an option is presumed to be the midpoint between the vesting date and the end of the contractual term. We used the simplified method due to the lack of sufficient historical exercise data to provide a reasonable basis upon which to otherwise estimate the expected life of the stock options.

Expected Volatility—Expected volatility is based on the historical volatilities of a peer group of comparable publicly traded companies with drug candidates in similar stages of development along with our historical volatility since our public offering.

Expected Dividend Yield—We have assumed no dividend yield because we do not expect to pay dividends in the future, which is consistent with our history of not paying dividends.

Research and Development Expenses, Including Clinical Trial Accruals/Expenses

Research and development costs consist of salaries and benefits, including related stock-based compensation, laboratory supplies and facility costs, as well as fees paid to other entities that conduct certain research and development activities on our behalf, such as clinical research organizations, or CROs, and contract manufacturing organizations, or CMOs. Research and development costs are expensed as incurred.

 

Clinical trial expenses are a significant component of research and development expenses, and we outsource a significant portion of these clinical trial activities to third parties. Third-party clinical trial expenses include investigator fees, site and patient costs, CRO costs, and costs for central laboratory testing and data management. The accrual for site and patient costs includes inputs such as estimates of patient enrollment, patient cycles incurred, clinical site activations, and other pass-through costs. These inputs are required to be estimated due to a lag in receiving the actual clinical information from third parties. Payments for these activities are based on the terms of the individual arrangements, which may differ from the pattern of costs incurred, and are reflected on the balance sheets as prepaid assets or accrued expenses. These third-party agreements are generally cancelable, and related costs are recorded as research and development expenses as incurred. Non-refundable advance clinical payments for goods or services that will be used or rendered for future research and development activities are recorded as a prepaid asset and recognized as expense as the related goods are delivered or the related services are performed. When evaluating the adequacy of the accrued expenses, we analyze progress of the studies, including the phase or completion of events, invoices received and contracted costs. Significant judgments and estimates may be made in determining the accrued balances at the end of any reporting period. Actual results could differ from the estimates made. Our historical clinical accrual estimates have not been materially different from our actual costs.

 

 

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Components of Operating Results

Revenue

 

To date, we have not generated any revenue from the sale of our drug candidates and do not expect to generate any revenue from the sale of drugs in the near future. Substantially all of our historical revenue consisted of the upfront and milestone payments under the Pfizer Agreement.

Research and Development

Research and development expenses consist of expenses incurred in performing research and development activities, including compensation and benefits for full-time research and development employees, facilities expenses, overhead expenses, cost of laboratory supplies, clinical trial and related clinical manufacturing expenses, fees paid to CROs and other consultants and other outside expenses. Other preclinical research and platform programs include activities related to exploratory efforts, target validation, lead optimization for our earlier programs and our proprietary glycomimetics platform. Our research and development expenses have related primarily to the development of rivipansel, uproleselan and our other drug candidates.

We do not currently utilize a formal time allocation system to capture expenses on a project-by-project basis because we are organized and record expense by functional department and our employees may allocate time to more than one development project. Accordingly, we only allocate a portion of our research and development expenses by functional area and by drug candidate.

Research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Non-refundable advance payments for goods or services to be received in the future for use in research and development activities are deferred and capitalized. The capitalized amounts are expensed as the related goods are delivered or the services are performed.

Research and development activities are central to our business model. Drug candidates in later stages of clinical development generally have higher development costs than those in earlier stages of clinical development, primarily due to the increased size and duration of later stage clinical trials. We expect our research and development expenses to increase over the next several years as we seek to progress uproleselan, GMI-1359 and our other drug candidates into and through clinical development. However, it is difficult to determine with certainty the duration and completion costs of our current or future preclinical studies and clinical trials of our drug candidates, or if, when or to what extent we will generate revenues from the commercialization and sale of any of our drug candidates that obtain regulatory approval. We may never succeed in achieving regulatory approval for any of our drug candidates.

The duration, costs and timing of clinical trials and development of our drug candidates will depend on a variety of factors that include:

·

per patient trial costs;

·

the number of patients that participate in the trials;

·

the number of sites included in the trials;

·

the countries in which the trial is conducted;

·

the length of time required to enroll eligible patients;

·

the number of doses that patients receive;

·

the drop-out or discontinuation rates of patients;

·

potential additional safety monitoring or other studies requested by regulatory agencies;

·

the duration of patient follow-up; and

·

the safety and efficacy profile of the drug candidate.

In addition, the probability of success for each drug candidate will depend on numerous factors, including competition, manufacturing capability and commercial viability. We will determine which programs to pursue and how

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much to fund each program in response to the scientific and clinical success of each drug candidate, as well as an assessment of each drug candidate’s commercial potential.

General and Administrative

General and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries and other related costs, including stock-based compensation, for personnel in executive, finance, accounting, business development and human resources functions. Other significant costs include facility costs not otherwise included in research and development expenses, legal fees relating to patent and corporate matters and fees for accounting and consulting services. We anticipate that our general and administrative expenses will increase in the future to support our continued research and development activities.

Interest Income

Other income consists of interest income earned on our cash and cash equivalents.

Results of Operations for the Years Ended December 31, 2019 and 2018

The following table sets forth our results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

YEAR ENDED

 

PERIOD-TO

 

 

DECEMBER 31, 

 

PERIOD

(in thousands)

    

2019

    

2018

    

CHANGE 

Revenue

 

$

 —

 

$

 —

 

$

 —

Costs and expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development expense

 

 

47,029

 

 

40,092

 

 

6,937

General and administrative expense

 

 

14,360

 

 

11,413

 

 

2,947

Total costs and expenses

 

 

61,389

 

 

51,505

 

 

9,884

Loss from operations

 

 

(61,389)

 

 

(51,505)

 

 

(9,884)

Interest income

 

 

3,497

 

 

3,231

 

 

266

Net loss and comprehensive loss

 

$

(57,892)

 

$

(48,274)

 

$

(9,618)

Research and Development Expense

 

The following table summarizes our research and development expense by functional area for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

YEAR ENDED

 

PERIOD-TO

 

 

DECEMBER 31, 

 

PERIOD

(in thousands)

    

2019

    

2018

    

CHANGE 

Clinical development

 

$

11,898

 

$

5,450

 

$

6,448

Manufacturing and formulation

 

 

18,077

 

 

20,692

 

 

(2,615)

Contract research services, consulting and other costs

 

 

2,644

 

 

2,511

 

 

133

Laboratory costs

 

 

2,146

 

 

2,004

 

 

142

Personnel-related

 

 

9,862

 

 

7,726

 

 

2,136

Stock-based compensation

 

 

2,402

 

 

1,709

 

 

693

Research and development expense

 

$

47,029

 

$

40,092

 

$

6,937

 

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The following table summarizes our research and development expense by drug candidate for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

YEAR ENDED

 

PERIOD-TO

 

 

DECEMBER 31, 

 

PERIOD

(in thousands)

    

2019

    

2018

    

CHANGE 

Uproleselan

 

$

30,033

 

$

26,775

 

$

3,258

GMI-1359

 

 

425

 

 

348

 

 

77

Other research and development

 

 

4,307

 

 

3,534

 

 

773

Personnel-related and stock-based compensation

 

 

12,264

 

 

9,435

 

 

2,829

Research and development expense

 

$

47,029

 

$

40,092

 

$

6,937

 

Research and development expense increased by $6.9 million, or 17%, to $47.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 from $40.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. Clinical development expenses increased by $6.4 million, primarily as a result of increased clinical costs related to our ongoing global Phase 3 clinical trial of uproleselan in individuals with relapsed/refractory AML and the Phase 2/3 clinical trial being conducted by the NCI, which opened for enrollment in early 2019. Personnel-related and stock-based compensation expenses increased due to an increase in clinical headcount and stock option and restricted stock unit awards granted in 2019. These increases were offset in part by a $2.6 million decrease in manufacturing and formulation due to lower raw material costs in 2019 as compared to 2018.

General and Administrative Expense

The following table sets forth the components of our general and administrative expense for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

YEAR ENDED

 

PERIOD-TO

 

 

DECEMBER 31, 

 

PERIOD

(in thousands)

    

2019

    

2018

    

CHANGE 

Personnel-related

 

$

4,783

 

$

3,553

 

$

1,230

Stock-based compensation

 

 

3,813

 

 

2,878

 

 

935

Legal, consulting and other professional expenses

 

 

4,849

 

 

4,157

 

 

692

Other

 

 

915

 

 

825

 

 

90

General and administrative expense

 

$

14,360

 

$

11,413

 

$

2,947

 

General and administrative expense increased for the year ended December 31, 2019 by $2.9 million, or 26%, compared to 2018 primarily due to an increase in personnel-related costs, stock-based compensation expense, legal and patent expenses. Personnel-related and stock-based compensation expenses increased due to additional headcount in 2019, annual salary adjustments for general and administrative personnel and stock option and restricted stock unit awards granted in 2019. Legal expenses increased due to increased review of third-party contracts in 2019.

Interest Income

 

Interest income increased by $266,000 to $3.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 from $3.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, due to higher cash balances in 2019 over 2018.

 

 

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Sources of Liquidity

 

We have historically financed our operations primarily through public offerings and private placements of our capital stock, including sales agreements with Cowen, and upfront and milestone payments from our license and collaboration agreements. As of December 31, 2019, we had $158.2 million in cash and cash equivalents.

 

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In March 2018, we completed a public offering in which we sold 8,050,000 shares of our common stock at a price to the public of $17.00 per share. We received net proceeds of $128.4 million from this offering, after deducting underwriting discounts, commissions and other offering expenses.

 

In May 2017, we completed a public offering in which we sold 8,050,000 shares of our common stock at a price to the public of $11.50 per share. We received net proceeds of $86.8 million from this offering, after deducting underwriting discounts, commissions and other offering expenses.

 

In March 2016, we entered into an at-the-market sales agreement with Cowen to sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $40.0 million through Cowen acting as our sales agent. During the year ended December 31, 2017, we sold an aggregate of 1,388,647 shares of our common stock under the at-the-market facility, for net proceeds of $7.4 million. We and Cowen terminated the agreement in May 2017. As of its termination, we had sold an aggregate of 2,057,438 shares for net proceeds of $11.3 million under the at-the-market facility.

 

In September 2017, we entered into a new at-the-market sales agreement with Cowen, under which we may offer and sell, from time to time at our sole discretion, shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $100.0 million through Cowen acting as our sales agent. During the year ended December 31, 2017, we sold an aggregate of 1,600,000 shares of our common stock under the at-the-market facility for net proceeds of $19.3 million. There were no sales under this agreement in the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018. As of December 31, 2019, we have the ability to sell up to $80.0 million of common stock under the at-the-market sales agreement with Cowen.

 

As described above, we entered into a collaboration and license agreement with Apollomics in January 2020 and are potentially eligible to earn milestone payments and royalties under that agreement. In January 2020, Apollomics made an upfront payment to the Company of $9.0 million. Our ability to earn these payments and their timing will be dependent upon the outcome of Apollomics’ activities and is uncertain at this time.

 

Funding Requirements

 

Our primary uses of capital are, and we expect will continue to be, compensation and related expenses, third-party clinical research and development services, laboratory and related supplies, clinical costs, legal and other regulatory expenses and general overhead costs.

 

The successful development of any of our drug candidates is highly uncertain. As such, at this time, we cannot reasonably estimate or know the nature, timing and costs of the efforts that will be necessary to complete the remainder of the development of uproleselan or our other drug candidates. We are also unable to predict when, if ever, material net cash inflows will commence from uproleselan or our other drug candidates. This is due to the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with developing drugs, including the uncertainty of:

 

·

successful enrollment in, and completion of, clinical trials;

 

·

receipt of marketing approvals from applicable regulatory authorities;

 

·

establishing commercial manufacturing capabilities or making arrangements with third-party manufacturers;

 

·

obtaining and maintaining patent and trade secret protection and regulatory exclusivity for drug candidates;

 

·

launching commercial sales of drugs, if and when approved, whether alone or in collaboration with others; and

 

·

obtaining and maintaining healthcare coverage and adequate reimbursement.

 

A change in the outcome of any of these variables with respect to the development of any of our drug candidates would significantly change the costs and timing associated with the development of that drug candidate. Because our drug candidates are in various stages of clinical and preclinical development and the outcome of these efforts is uncertain, we cannot estimate the actual amounts necessary to successfully complete the development and commercialization of our drug candidates or whether, or when, we may achieve profitability. Until such time, if ever, as

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we can generate substantial product revenues, we expect to finance our cash needs through a combination of equity or debt financings and collaboration arrangements, including our existing license agreement with Apollomics. Except for Apollomics’ obligation to make milestone and royalty payments under our license agreement, we do not have any committed external source of liquidity.

 

To the extent that we raise additional capital through the future sale of equity or debt, the ownership interest of our stockholders will be diluted, and the terms of these securities may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect the rights of our existing common stockholders. If we raise additional funds through the issuance of convertible debt securities, these securities could contain covenants that would restrict our operations.

 

We may require additional capital beyond our currently anticipated amounts. Additional capital may not be available on reasonable terms, or at all. If we raise additional funds through collaboration arrangements in the future, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our drug candidates or grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us. If we are unable to raise additional funds through equity or debt financings when needed, we may be required to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our drug development or future commercialization efforts or grant rights to develop and market drug candidates that we would otherwise prefer to develop and market ourselves.

 

Outlook

 

Based on our research and development plans and our timing expectations related to the progress of our programs, we expect that our existing cash and cash equivalents will enable us to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements into 2022. We have based this estimate on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we could use our capital resources sooner than we expect. Additionally, the process of testing drug candidates in clinical trials is costly, and the timing of progress in these trials is uncertain.

 

Cash Flows

The following table summarizes our cash flows for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 

 

(in thousands) 

 

2019

 

2018

 

2017

 

Net cash provided by (used in):

 

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Operating activities

 

$

(51,984)

 

$

(43,331)

 

$

(29,768)

 

Investing activities

 

 

(145)

 

 

(126)

 

 

(294)

 

Financing activities

 

 

413

 

 

129,450

 

 

113,945

 

Net change in cash and cash equivalents

 

$

(51,716)

 

$

85,993

 

$

83,883

 

 

In assessing cash used in operating activities, we consider several principal factors: (i) net loss for the period; (ii) adjustments for non-cash charges including stock-based compensation expense and depreciation and amortization of property and equipment; and (iii) the extent to which receivables, accounts payable and other liabilities, or other working capital components increase or decrease.

Year Ended December 31, 2019 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2018

Operating Activities

Net cash used in operating activities was $52.0 million during the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to $43.3 million during the year ended December 31, 2018. The increase was primarily the result of ongoing costs associated with our uproleselan clinical development programs, which for 2019 also included significant costs associated with the start-up activities and enrollment for the global Phase 3 clinical trial and the NCI-sponsored Phase 2/3 trial, as described above.

Investing Activities

Net cash used in investing activities, consisting of purchases of scientific equipment and computers, was $145,000 for the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to $126,000 during the year ended December 31, 2018.

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Financing Activities

Net cash provided by financing activities of $413,000 during the year ended December 31, 2019 consisted of proceeds from stock option exercises. Net cash provided by financing activities of $129.4 million during the year ended December 31, 2018 consisted of the net proceeds of $128.4 million from our public offering in March 2018 and $1.0 million in proceeds from stock option and warrant exercises.

 

Contractual Obligations

 

As of December 31, 2019, our significant contractual obligations consisted solely of rent obligations under a non-cancelable lease, as amended, for our current office space in Rockville, Maryland, which has a term through October 2023.

 

The following table depicts our obligations under this lease as of December 31, 2019.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Payments Due by Period 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

After

 

 

Total 

 

2020

   

2021

 

2022

 

2023

 

2024

 

2024

 

 

(In thousands)

Operating leases

    

$

4,174

    

$

1,051

 

$

1,078

    

$

1,104

    

$

941

    

$

 —

    

$

 —

 

The foregoing table does not include various agreements that we have entered into for services with third-party vendors, including agreements to conduct clinical trials, to manufacture products, and for consulting and other contracted services due to the cancelable nature of the services. We accrue the costs of these agreements based on estimates of work completed to date.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

We did not have during the periods presented, and we do not currently have, any off-balance sheet arrangements, as defined under SEC rules.

ITEM  7A.QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

The market risk inherent in our financial instruments and in our financial position represents the potential loss arising from adverse changes in interest rates. As of December 31, 2019 and 2018, we had cash and cash equivalents of $158.2 million and $209.9 million, respectively. We generally hold our cash in interest-bearing money market accounts. Our primary exposure to market risk is interest rate sensitivity, which is affected by changes in the general level of U.S. interest rates. Due to the short-term maturities of our cash equivalents and the low risk profile of our investments, an immediate 100 basis point change in interest rates would not have a material effect on the fair market value of our cash equivalents.

ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA  

The financial statements and related financial statement schedules required to be filed are listed in Part IV, Item 15 of this Form 10-K.

ITEM  9.CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE

None.

ITEM  9A.CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES  

Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures

Under the supervision of and with the participation of our management, including our chief executive officer, who is our principal executive officer, and our chief financial officer, who is our principal financial officer, we conducted an

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evaluation of the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures as of December 31, 2019, the end of the period covered by this Annual Report. The term “disclosure controls and procedures,” as set forth in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, means controls and other procedures of a company that are designed to provide reasonable assurance that information required to be disclosed by a company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported, within the time periods specified in the rules and forms promulgated by the SEC. Disclosure controls and procedures include, without limitation, controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by a company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to the company’s management, including its principal executive and principal financial officers, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure. Management recognizes that any controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance of achieving their objectives, and management necessarily applies its judgment in evaluating the cost-benefit relationship of possible controls and procedures. Based on the evaluation of our disclosure controls and procedures as of December 31, 2019, our chief executive officer and chief financial officer concluded that, as of such date, our disclosure controls and procedures were effective at the reasonable assurance level.

Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting and Attestation Report of the Registered Public Accounting Firm

Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining an adequate system of internal control over financial reporting, as defined in the Exchange Act Rule 13a-15(f). Management conducted an assessment of our internal control over financial reporting based on the original framework established in 2013 by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission in Internal Control—Integrated Framework. Based on the assessment, management concluded that, as of December 31, 2019, our internal control over financial reporting was effective.

The effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2019 has been audited by Ernst & Young, LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report which is included herein on page 74.

Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting

There was no change in our internal control over financial reporting identified in connection with the evaluation required by Rule 13a-15(d) and 15d-15(d) of the Exchange Act that occurred during the quarter ended December 31, 2019 that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

ITEM 9B.OTHER INFORMATION  

None.

 

PART III

 

We will file a definitive proxy statement for our 2020 annual meeting of stockholders, or the 2020 Proxy Statement, with the SEC, pursuant to Regulation 14A, not later than 120 days after the end of our fiscal year. Accordingly, certain information required by Part III has been omitted under General Instruction G(3) to Form 10-K. Only those sections of the 2020 Proxy Statement that specifically address the items set forth herein are incorporated by reference.

ITEM  10.DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE  

The information required by Item 10 is hereby incorporated by reference to the relevant information to be included in the 2020 Proxy Statement under the captions “Information Regarding the Board of Directors and Corporate Governance,” “Election of Directors” and “Executive Officers.”

 

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ITEM  11.EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION  

The information required by Item 11 is hereby incorporated by reference to the relevant information to be included in the 2020 Proxy Statement under the captions “Executive Compensation” and “Non-Employee Director Compensation.”

 

ITEM 12. SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS

The information required by Item 12 is hereby incorporated by reference to the relevant information to be included in the 2020 Proxy Statement under the captions “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management” and “Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans.”

ITEM 13.CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS, AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE

The information required by Item 13 is hereby incorporated by reference to the relevant information to be included in the 2020 Proxy Statement under the captions “Transactions with Related Persons” and “Independence of the Board of Directors.”

ITEM  14.PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTING FEES AND SERVICES  

The information required by Item 14 is hereby incorporated by reference to the relevant information to be included in the 2020 Proxy Statement under the caption “Ratification of Selection of Independent Auditors.”

 

PART IV

 

ITEM  15.EXHIBITS, FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES  

 

(a) The following documents are filed as part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K:

 

(1) Financial Statements:

 

 

 

Reports of Ernst & Young LLP, Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm 

74

Balance Sheets 

76

Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss 

77

Statements of Stockholders’ Equity 

78

Statements of Cash Flows 

79

Notes to Financial Statements 

80

 

(2) Financial Statement Schedules:

 

All financial statement schedules have been omitted because they are not applicable, not required or the information required is shown in the financial statements or the notes thereto.

 

(3) Exhibits